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Author (up) Pierce, M.M.; Nall, B.T. doi  openurl
  Title Coupled kinetic traps in cytochrome c folding: His-heme misligation and proline isomerization Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol  
  Volume 298 Issue 5 Pages 955-969  
  Keywords Amino Acid Sequence; Amino Acid Substitution/genetics; Binding Sites; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; *Cytochromes c; Enzyme Stability/drug effects; Fluorescence; Guanidine/pharmacology; Heme/*metabolism; Histidine/genetics/*metabolism; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Isomerism; Kinetics; Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Mutation/genetics; Proline/*chemistry/metabolism; Protein Conformation/drug effects; Protein Denaturation/drug effects; *Protein Folding; Protein Renaturation; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics; Sequence Alignment; Thermodynamics  
  Abstract The effect of His-heme misligation on folding has been investigated for a triple mutant of yeast iso-2 cytochrome c (N26H,H33N,H39K iso-2). The variant contains a single misligating His residue at position 26, a location at which His residues are found in several cytochrome c homologues, including horse, tuna, and yeast iso-1. The amplitude for fast phase folding exhibits a strong initial pH dependence. For GdnHCl unfolded protein at an initial pH<5, the observed refolding at final pH 6 is dominated by a fast phase (tau(2f)=20 ms, alpha(2f)=90 %) that represents folding in the absence of misligation. For unfolded protein at initial pH 6, folding at final pH 6 occurs in a fast phase of reduced amplitude (alpha(2f) approximately 20 %) but the same rate (tau(2f)=20 ms), and in two slower phases (tau(m)=6-8 seconds, alpha(m) approximately 45 %; and tau(1b)=16-20 seconds, alpha(1b) approximately 35 %). Double jump experiments show that the initial pH dependence of the folding amplitudes results from a slow pH-dependent equilibrium between fast and slow folding species present in the unfolded protein. The slow equilibrium arises from coupling of the His protonation equilibrium to His-heme misligation and proline isomerization. Specifically, Pro25 is predominantly in trans in the unligated low-pH unfolded protein, but is constrained in a non-native cis isomerization state by His26-heme misligation near neutral pH. Refolding from the misligated unfolded form proceeds slowly due to the large energetic barrier required for proline isomerization and displacement of the misligated His26-heme ligand.  
  Address Center for Biomolecular Structure, Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-2836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10801361 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3853  
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