||Dustbathing is known to be motivated by complex interactions between internal factors which build up over time and external factors, such as the sight of a dusty substrate. In this study, the effects of other external factors were investigated. Environmental temperature was shown to be important; frequencies of dustbathing were greater when hens were held at 22 than at 10[degree sign]C (P<0.01). In a second experiment, a radiant heat source or a radiant heat+light source, balanced to give the same radiant heat, resulted in more dustbathing behaviour during a 1-h stimulus period than during the same period with no stimulus (P<0.05). Components of dustbathing were increased more by the heat+light stimulus than by the heat stimulus alone (P<0.03). In a third experiment, the amount of dustbathing performed by individual hens in cages with dustbaths was increased by the presence of a group of hens dustbathing in an adjoining pen with a dustbath compared with the amount occurring when the hens were absent from the pen.