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Author (up) Boysen, S.T.; Bernston, G.G.; Hannan, M.B.; Cacioppo, J.T. openurl 
  Title Quantity-based interference and symbolic representations in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes Abbreviated Journal J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 76-86  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Cognition; *Discrimination Learning; Female; Male; *Pan troglodytes; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Task Performance and Analysis  
  Abstract Five chimpanzees with training in counting and numerical skills selected between 2 arrays of different amounts of candy or 2 Arabic numerals. A reversed reinforcement contingency was in effect, in which the selected array was removed and the subject received the nonselected candies (or the number of candies represented by the nonselected Arabic numeral). Animals were unable to maximize reward by selecting the smaller array when candies were used as array elements. When Arabic numerals were substituted for the candy arrays, all animals showed an immediate shift to a more optimal response strategy of selecting the smaller numeral, thereby receiving the larger reward. Results suggest that a response disposition to the high-incentive candy stimuli introduced a powerful interference effect on performance, which was effectively overridden by the use of symbolic representations.  
  Address Ohio State University, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1222, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0097-7403 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:8568498 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2781  
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