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Author (up) Clement, T.S.; Feltus, J.R.; Kaiser, D.H.; Zentall, T.R. openurl 
  Title “Work ethic” in pigeons: reward value is directly related to the effort or time required to obtain the reward Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Psychonomic bulletin & review Abbreviated Journal Psychon Bull Rev  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 100-106  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Cognition/physiology; Columbidae; Discrimination Learning/physiology; Female; Male; Reinforcement (Psychology); *Reward; Time Factors  
  Abstract Stimuli associated with less effort or with shorter delays to reinforcement are generally preferred over those associated with greater effort or longer delays to reinforcement. However, the opposite appears to be true of stimuli that follow greater effort or longer delays. In training, a simple simultaneous discrimination followed a single peck to an initial stimulus (S+FR1 S-FR1) and a different simple simultaneous discrimination followed 20 pecks to the initial stimulus (S+FR20 S-FR20). On test trials, pigeons preferred S+FR20 over S+FR1 and S-FR20 over S-FR1. These data support the view that the state of the animal immediately prior to presentation of the discrimination affects the value of the reinforcement that follows it. This contrast effect is analogous to effects that when they occur in humans have been attributed to more complex cognitive and social factors.  
  Address University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1069-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10780022 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 248  
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