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Author (up) Kaiser, L.; Smith, K.A.; Heleski, C.R.; Spence, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title Effects of a therapeutic riding program on at-risk and special education children Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Abbreviated Journal J Am Vet Med Assoc  
  Volume 228 Issue 1 Pages 46-52  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anger; Animals; *Bonding, Human-Pet; Child; Child Behavior; *Child Psychology; Disabled Persons/*psychology/rehabilitation; Female; Horses; Humans; Mainstreaming (Education); Male; Mothers/*psychology; Occupational Therapy/*methods; Recreation; Self Efficacy; Sports/*psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a therapeutic riding program on psychosocial measurements among children considered at risk for poor performance or failure in school or life and among children in special education programs. DESIGN: Observational study. POPULATION: 17 at-risk children (6 boys and 11 girls) and 14 special education children (7 boys and 7 girls). PROCEDURE: For the at-risk children, anger, anxiety, perceived self-competence, and physical coordination were assessed. For the special education children, anger and cheerfulness were measured, and the children's and their mothers' perceptions of the children's behavior were assessed. Measurements were made before and after an 8-session therapeutic riding program. RESULTS: For boys enrolled in the special education program, anger was significantly decreased after completion of the riding program. The boys' mothers also perceived significant improvements in their children's behavior after completion of the program. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggest that an 8-session therapeutic riding program can significantly decrease anger in adolescent boys in a special education program and positively affect their mothers' perception of the boys' behavior.  
  Address Human-Animal Bond Initiative, College of Nursing, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-1488 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16426165 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1880  
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