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Author (up) Preston, S.D.; de Waal, F.B.M. doi  openurl
  Title Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Sci  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 1-20; discussion 20-71  
  Keywords Adult; Animals; Child; Emotions/physiology; *Empathy; Evolution; Haplorhini; Helping Behavior; Humans; Mental Disorders/physiopathology/psychology; Morals; Personality Development; Phylogeny; Prefrontal Cortex/physiopathology; Socialization  
  Abstract There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.  
  Address University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, 2RCP-Neurology Clinic, Iowa City, IA 52242.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0140-525X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12625087 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 181  
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