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Author (up) Arnold, W.; Ruf, T.; Kuntz, R. doi  openurl
  Title Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of experimental biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 22 Pages 4566-4573  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/*physiology; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Eating; *Energy Metabolism; Female; Heart Rate; Horses/*physiology; Male; Motor Activity; Pregnancy; Reproduction; *Seasons  
  Abstract Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands.  
  Address Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160 Vienna, Austria.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17079726 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1782  
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