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Author (up) Forster, H.V.; Pan, L.G.; Bisgard, G.E.; Flynn, C.; Hoffer, R.E. openurl 
  Title Changes in breathing when switching from nares to tracheostomy breathing in awake ponies Type Journal Article
  Year 1985 Publication Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) Abbreviated Journal J Appl Physiol  
  Volume 59 Issue 4 Pages 1214-1221  
  Keywords Airway Resistance; Animals; Chemoreceptors/physiology; Consciousness; Exertion; Horses/*physiology; Lung Compliance; Pulmonary Gas Exchange; Pulmonary Stretch Receptors/physiology; *Respiration; Respiratory Dead Space; *Tracheotomy  
  Abstract We assessed the consequences of respiratory unloading associated with tracheostomy breathing (TBr). Three normal and three carotid body-denervated (CBD) ponies were prepared with chronic tracheostomies that at rest reduced physiological dead space (VD) from 483 +/- 60 to 255 +/- 30 ml and lung resistance from 1.5 +/- 0.14 to 0.5 +/- 0.07 cmH2O . l-1 . s. At rest and during steady-state mild-to-heavy exercise arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) was approximately 1 Torr higher during nares breathing (NBr) than during TBr. Pulmonary ventilation and tidal volume (VT) were greater and alveolar ventilation was less during NBr than TBr. Breathing frequency (f) did not differ between NBr and TBr at rest, but f during exercise was greater during TBr than during NBr. These responses did not differ between normal and CBD ponies. We also assessed the consequences of increasing external VD (300 ml) and resistance (R, 0.3 cmH2O . l-1 . s) by breathing through a tube. At rest and during mild exercise tube breathing caused PaCO2 to transiently increase 2-3 Torr, but 3-5 min later PaCO2 usually was within 1 Torr of control. Tube breathing did not cause f to change. When external R was increased 1 cmH2O . l-1 . s by breathing through a conventional air collection system, f did not change at rest, but during exercise f was lower than during unencumbered breathing. These responses did not differ between normal, CBD, and hilar nerve-denervated ponies, and they did not differ when external VD or R were added at either the nares or tracheostomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 8750-7587 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:4055600 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 100  
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