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Author (up) Amé, J.-M.; Halloy, J.; Rivault, C.; Detrain, C.; Deneubourg, J.L. doi  openurl
  Title Collegial decision making based on social amplification leads to optimal group formation Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.  
  Volume 103 Issue 15 Pages 5835-5840  
  Keywords Animals; Blattellidae/*physiology; Choice Behavior; Decision Making; Leadership; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Group-living animals are often faced with choosing between one or more alternative resource sites. A central question in such collective decision making includes determining which individuals induce the decision and when. This experimental and theoretical study of shelter selection by cockroach groups demonstrates that choices can emerge through nonlinear interaction dynamics between equal individuals without perfect knowledge or leadership. We identify a simple mechanism whereby a decision is taken on the move with limited information and signaling and without comparison of available opportunities. This mechanism leads to optimal mean benefit for group individuals. Our model points to a generic self-organized collective decision-making process independent of animal species.  
  Address Service d'Ecologie Sociale CP231, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Avenue F. D. Roosevelt 50, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16581903 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2042  
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Author (up) Anderson, M.K.; Friend, T.H.; Evans, J.W.; Bushong, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Behavioral assessment of horses in therapeutic riding programs Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 11-24  
  Keywords Horses; Therapeutic riding; Temperament; Cortisol; Catecholamines  
  Abstract A behavioral assessment of horses who were being used and not used in therapeutic riding programs was conducted to help determine useful methods of selecting horses for use in therapeutic riding programs. A total of 103 horses (76 horses from five therapeutic riding centers and 27 non-therapeutic riding horses from four sites) were used. Temperament survey for each horse were completed by three riding instructors at each therapeutic riding center or by the individual most knowledgeable about the horse at the other sites. Twenty personality traits from the survey were used to quantify temperament. Concentrations of plasma cortisol, norepinephrine and epinephrine were also measured in each horse. A reactivity test was then conducted which involved introducing three novel stimuli: a walking and vocalizing toy pig placed on a cardboard surface in front of the horse for 20 s; popping a balloon near the horse's flank area; and suddenly opening an umbrella and holding it open in front of the horse for 20 s. Reactions (expressions, vocalizations and movement) to each of the stimuli were scored and used to calculate an average reactivity score for each horse. The therapeutic riding instructors did not often agree on the temperament of their center's horses. The personality trait ratings made by the therapeutic riding instructors at each center were on average significantly correlated (P<0.01, r>0.52) for only 37.8% of the horses for any two instructors and 7.8% for three instructors. No significant correlations were found between temperament, reactivity, and the hormone concentrations (r<0.19), but regression analysis indicated a possibility of predicting temperament from the reactivity score and hormone concentrations (P<0.08). There was also a tendency for relationships between extremes in temperament (desirable vs. undesirable) and the hormone concentrations (P<0.09), and between extremes in reactivity (low vs. high) and the hormone concentrations (P=0.08). The difference in ratings among riding instructors indicates a need for more collaboration between instructors when evaluating horse temperament. This study also indicates that it was very difficult to objectively determine the suitability of horses for therapeutic riding programs regarding their temperament and reactivity, probably because other traits (e.g., smoothness of gait) are also considered very important.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4812  
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Author (up) Anderson, W.D.; Summers, C.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neuroendocrine Mechanisms, Stress Coping Strategies, and Social Dominance: Comparative Lessons about Leadership Potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science Abbreviated Journal Ann Am Acad Polit Soc Sci  
  Volume 614 Issue 1 Pages 102-130  
  Keywords social dominance – authoritarian – Five Factor Model – neurochemistry – neurotransmitters – leadership  
  Abstract The authors examine dominance and subordination in the social psychology, political science, and biology literatures. Using Summers and Winberg (2006) as a guide, the authors suggest that extreme dominance or subordination phenotypes--including social dominance orientation and right-wing authoritarianism--are determined by an organism's genetic predispositions, motivations, stress responses, and long-term hormone release and uptake states. The authors offer hypotheses about the likely neurochemical profiles for each of these extreme dominance and subordination phenotypes and suggest two designs that begin to test these hypotheses.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4699  
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Author (up) Andrew, R.J.; Osorio, D.; Budaev, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light during embryonic development modulates patterns of lateralization strongly and similarly in both zebrafish and chick Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Phil. Trans. Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 364 Issue 1519 Pages 983-989  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Some aspects of lateralization are widespread. This is clear for the association between left-eye (LE) use and readiness to respond intensely to releasing stimuli presented by others, which has been found in representatives of all major groups of tetrapods and in fishes. In the chick, this behavioural asymmetry is linked developmentally to greater ability to sustain response against distracting stimuli with right-eye (RE) use, in that both reverse with the reversal of the normal RE exposure to light. In the zebrafish, the same two asymmetries (normally) have similar associations with the LE and the RE, and both also reverse together (owing to epithalamic reversal). Here, we show that light exposure early in development is needed in zebrafish to generate both asymmetries. Dark development largely abolishes both the enhanced abilities, confirming their linkage. Resemblance to the chick is increased by the survival in the chick, after dark development, of higher ability to assess familiarity of complex stimuli when using the LE. A somewhat similar ability survives in dark-developed zebrafish. Here, LE use causes lesser reliance on a single recent experience than on longer term past experience in the assessment of novelty. Such resemblances between a fish and a bird suggest that we should look not only for resemblances between different groups of vertebrates in the most common overall pattern of lateralization, but also for possible resemblances in the nature of inter-individual variation and in the way in which it is generated during development.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5370  
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Author (up) Apfelbach, R.; Blanchard, C.D.; Blanchard, R.J.; Hayes, R.A.; McGregor, I.S. doi  openurl
  Title The effects of predator odors in mammalian prey species: A review of field and laboratory studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 8 Pages 1123-1144  
  Keywords Behavioral suppression; Defensive behavior; Endocrine effects; Neural effects; Predator odor; Small mammals  
  Abstract Prey species show specific adaptations that allow recognition, avoidance and defense against predators. For many mammalian species this includes sensitivity towards predator-derived odors. The typical sources of such odors include predator skin and fur, urine, feces and anal gland secretions. Avoidance of predator odors has been observed in many mammalian prey species including rats, mice, voles, deer, rabbits, gophers, hedgehogs, possums and sheep. Field and laboratory studies show that predator odors have distinctive behavioral effects which include (1) inhibition of activity, (2) suppression of non-defensive behaviors such as foraging, feeding and grooming, and (3) shifts to habitats or secure locations where such odors are not present. The repellent effect of predator odors in the field may sometimes be of practical use in the protection of crops and natural resources, although not all attempts at this have been successful. The failure of some studies to obtain repellent effects with predator odors may relate to (1) mismatches between the predator odors and prey species employed, (2) strain and individual differences in sensitivity to predator odors, and (3) the use of predator odors that have low efficacy. In this regard, a small number of recent studies have suggested that skin and fur-derived predator odors may have a more profound lasting effect on prey species than those derived from urine or feces. Predator odors can have powerful effects on the endocrine system including a suppression of testosterone and increased levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone and ACTH. Inhibitory effects of predator odors on reproductive behavior have been demonstrated, and these are particularly prevalent in female rodent species. Pregnant female rodents exposed to predator odors may give birth to smaller litters while exposure to predator odors during early life can hinder normal development. Recent research is starting to uncover the neural circuitry activated by predator odors, leading to hypotheses about how such activation leads to observable effects on reproduction, foraging and feeding. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
  Address School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4565  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K. url  openurl
  Title Duration of restraint and isolation stress as a model to study the dark-cutting condition in cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 83 Issue 5 Pages 1202-1214  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 32; 156 {+/-} 33.2 kg average BW) were used to evaluate the duration of restraint and isolation stress (RIS) on endocrine and blood metabolite status and the incidence of dark-cutting LM. Calves were blocked by BW and assigned randomly within blocks to one of four stressor treatments: unstressed controls (NS) or a single bout of RIS for 2, 4, or 6 h. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 40, 20, and 0 min before stressor application and at 20-min intervals during RIS. Unstressed calves remained in their home stanchions and, except for blood sampling, were subjected to minimal handling and stress. Serum cortisol and plasma lactate concentrations were increased (P <0.01) during the first 20 min after RIS application, and remained elevated throughout the 6 h of RIS. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were greater (P <0.05) in RIS calves than in NS calves after 80 and 100 min of stressor application, respectively; however, RIS did not (P >0.80) affect plasma NEFA concentrations. Calves were slaughtered within 20 min of completion of RIS, and muscle samples were excised from right-side LM at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after exsanguination for quantifying LM pH, and glycogen and lactate concentrations. The pH of the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS exceeded 6.0, and was greater (P <0.05) at 24 and 48 h postmortem than the pH of NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h RIS. Muscle glycogen concentrations did not differ (P = 0.16; 25.58, 10.41, 13.80, and 14.41 {micro}mol/g of wet tissue weight for NS and 2-, 4-, and 6-h RIS, respectively), and LM lactate concentrations tended to be lower (P = 0.08) in calves subjected to 6 h of RIS. At 48 h after exsanguination, the LM from calves subjected to 6 h of RIS had more (P <0.05) bound and less (P <0.05) free moisture than did the LM from NS calves or calves subjected to 2 or 4 h of RIS. Additionally, the LM from RIS calves was darker (lower L* values; P <0.05) than the LM of NS calves. Visual color scores for the LM were greatest (P < 0.05) for calves subjected to 6 h of RIS and least (P <0.05) for NS calves. Subjecting lightweight Holstein calves to 6, 4, and 2 h of RIS resulted in six (75%), two (25%), and two (25%) carcasses characteristic of the dark-cutting condition, respectively. There were no dark-cutting carcasses produced from NS calves. Thus, RIS may be a reliable animal model with which to study the formation of the dark-cutting condition. N1 -  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2948  
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Author (up) Apple, J.K.; Kegley, E.B.; Galloway, D.L.; Wistuba, T.J.; Rakes, L.K.; Yancey, J.W.S. url  openurl
  Title Treadmill exercise is not an effective methodology for producing the dark-cutting condition in young cattle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 84 Issue 11 Pages 3079-3088  
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  Abstract Holstein steer calves (n = 25) were used to evaluate the effects of treadmill exercise (TME) on blood metabolite status and formation of dark-cutting beef. Calves were blocked by BW (156 {+/-} 33.2 kg) and assigned randomly within blocks to 1 of 5 TME treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design (4 or 8 km/h for a duration of 10 or 15 min) with a nonexercised control. Venous blood was collected via indwelling jugular catheters at 10, 2, and 0 min before TME and at 2-min intervals during exercise. Nonexercised steers were placed on the treadmill but stood still for 15 min. Serum cortisol levels, as well as plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, and NEFA, were similar (P > 0.05) before TME. Serum cortisol concentrations were unaffected (P > 0.05) during the first 6 min of TME, but between 8 and 15 min of TME, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in steers exercised at 8 km/h than those exercised at 4 km/h or controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Although TME did not affect (P > 0.05) plasma glucose levels, plasma lactate concentrations in steers exercised at 8 km/h increased (P < 0.05) sharply with the onset of the TME treatment and remained elevated compared with steers exercised at 4 km/h or unexercised controls (speed x time, P < 0.001). Exercised steers had the lowest (P < 0.05) plasma NEFA concentrations during the first 6 min of TME compared with unexercised steers; however, NEFA concentrations were similar after 10 and 12 min of TME, and by the end of TME, steers exercised at 8 km/h had greater (P < 0.05) NEFA levels than nonexercised controls or steers exercised at 4 km/h (speed x time, P < 0.001). Even though muscle glycogen levels and pH decreased (P < 0.001) and muscle lactate concentrations increased (P < 0.001) with increasing time postmortem, neither treadmill speed nor TME duration altered postmortem LM metabolism. Consequently, there were no (P > 0.05) differences in the color, water-holding capacity, shear force, or incidences of dark-cutting carcasses associated with preslaughter TME. It is apparent that preslaughter TME, at the speeds and durations employed in this study, failed to alter antemortem or postmortem muscle metabolism and would not be a suitable animal model for studying the formation of the dark-cutting condition in ruminants.  
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  Notes 10.2527/jas.2006-137 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2947  
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Author (up) Appleby M. doi  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare – J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, 15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue Pages 239-241  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3485  
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Author (up) Appleby, M. url  openurl
  Title Consciousness, Cognition and Animal Welfare: J.K. Kirkwood, R.C. Hubrecht, S. Wickens, H. O'Leary, S. Oakley (Eds.), Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, 2001, 251 pp., Paperback, Supplement to Volume 10 of Animal Welfare, [pound sign]15/US$ 30, ISSN 0962-7286 Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 239-241  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2905  
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Author (up) Araba, B.D.; Crowell-Davis, S.L. doi  openurl
  Title Dominance relationships and aggression of foals (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 41 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-25  
  Keywords aggression; dominance; horse; Equus caballus  
  Abstract Studied a herd of 15 Belgian brood-mares and 10 foals. Specific aspects of social structure studied were dominance-subordinance relationships, preferred associates, social spacing, aggression rates, the frequency of aggressions administered down the dominance hierarchy, and interactive play bouts. The rank order of the foals, both before and after weaning, was positively correlated with the rank order of their dams. There was also a significant relationship between a foal's rank and its total aggression or aggression rate per subordinate post-weaning. Higher ranking foals had higher rates of aggression. Over 80% of threats were directed down the dominance hierachy. The play-rank order of the foals, scored by the number of times foal left a play bout, was not significantly correlated with the rank order as scored by agonistic interactions. -from Authors  
  Address Dept Anatomy and Radiology, Univ of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA  
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  ISSN 01681591 (Issn) ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 790  
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