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Author (up) Dowdle, W.R.; Schild, G.C. openurl 
  Title Influenza: its antigenic variation and ecology Type Journal Article
  Year 1976 Publication Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization Abbreviated Journal Bull Pan Am Health Organ  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 193-195  
  Keywords Animals; *Antigens, Viral; Bird Diseases/microbiology; Birds; Hemagglutinins, Viral; Horse Diseases/microbiology; Horses; Humans; Influenza A virus/immunology/isolation & purification; Influenza, Human/epidemiology; Mutation; Neuraminidase/immunology; Orthomyxoviridae/enzymology/*immunology; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/microbiology/veterinary; Recombination, Genetic; Swine; Swine Diseases/microbiology  
  Abstract Influenza viruses have two surface antigens, the glycoprotein structures hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Antibodies to each of these are associated with immunity, but the structures themselves are antigenically variable. When an antigenic change is gradual over time it is referred to as a drift, while a sudden complete or major change in either or both antigens is termed a shift. The mechanism of antigenic drift is usually attributed to selection of preexisting mutants by pressure from increasing immunity in the human population. The mechanism of antigenic shift is less clear, but one tentative hypothesis is that shifts arise from mammalian or avian reservoirs, or through genetic recombination of human and animal influenza strains.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0085-4638 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:187273 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2700  
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