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Author (up) Henry, S.; Hemery, D.; Richard, M.-A.; Hausberger, M.
Title Human-mare relationships and behaviour of foals toward humans Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 93 Issue 3-4 Pages 341-362
Keywords Horse; Human-animal relationship; Maternal influence; Early experience; Social facilitation
Abstract We studied experimentally whether horse dams influenced foals' relationships with humans. We investigated the influence of the establishment of positive human-mare relationships on foals' behaviour toward humans. Forty-one foals and their dams were involved in this experiment. Half of the mares were softly brushed and fed by hand during a short period (total of 1.25 h) during the first 5 days of their foals' lives (experimental group, n = 21). The other mares were not handled experimentally and their foals received no contact with the experimenter (control group, n = 20). The reactions of both experimental and control foals were recorded under various conditions, first, for 5 min in the presence of a motionless experimenter, when foals were 15 and 30-35 days old, then in an approach test when they were 15 days old and in a saddle-pad tolerance test when they were 30-35 days old. Finally, approach-stroking tests were performed successively by the familiar experimenter when foals were 11-13 months old and by an unfamiliar person when they were 13-15 months old. Several observations strongly suggest that mares can influence their foals' behaviour toward humans: (1) during the handling procedure, experimental foals of protective mares were further from the handler than foals of calm mares (p < 0.001); (2) experimental foals remained, at all ages, closer to the experimenter (p < 0.05) and initiated more physical contacts (sniffing, licking, etc.) with the experimenter (p < 0.05) than control foals; (3) avoidance and flight responses of experimental foals were considerably reduced during approaches by the experimenter (p < 0.01) and they accepted saddle-pads on their backs more easily (p < 0.01) and more quickly (p < 0.01) than control foals. Lastly, the consequences of handling mares had effects that lasted at least until foals were one year old (p < 0.05) and became generalized from experimenter to unfamiliar humans, who could approach and stroke experimental foals rapidly during a test (p < 0.05). This is the first report of an attempt to use observation of mother by foals to facilitate human-foal relationships. The procedure is simple, takes little time and can easily be applied to any dam-foal pair, as it is not intrusive and presents no risks of disrupting mare-foal bonds.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 331
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Author (up) Hockenhull, J.; Creighton, E.
Title Unwanted oral investigative behaviour in horses: A note on the relationship between mugging behaviour, hand-feeding titbits and clicker training Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 127 Issue 3-4 Pages 104-107
Keywords Equine; Horse; Titbits; Food rewards; Clicker training; Mugging behaviour
Abstract Unwanted oral investigative in horses has been anecdotally attributed to the practice of hand-feeding. Fears over such behaviour developing as a consequence of using food rewards, for example in clicker training, have been implicated as a common reason for not employing food-based positive reinforcement training techniques. This study used data generated as part of a larger research project, and explored associations between five common oral investigative behaviours and the practices of hand-feeding and clicker training. Data were from a convenience sample of UK leisure horse owners using two self-administered Internet surveys. Ninety-one percent of respondents reported giving their horse food by hand and this practice was significantly associated with three of the five oral investigative behaviours, licking hands (P = 0.006), gently searching clothing (P < 0.001) and roughly searching clothing (P = 0.003). Nipping hands and biting clothes were not associated with hand-feeding, suggesting that risk factors for these behaviours originate outside of this practice. Clicker training techniques were employed by 14% of respondents and their use was not associated with the incidence of any of the five oral investigative behaviours. These findings suggest that horse owners should not be deterred from using food-based positive reinforcement techniques with their horses, as fears that this practice will result in unwanted oral investigative behaviours from their horses appear unfounded.
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ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5183
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Author (up) Hodson, E.F.; Clayton, H.M.; Lanovaz, J.L.
Title Temporal analysis of walk movements in the Grand Prix dressage test at the 1996 Olympic Games Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 62 Issue 2-3 Pages 89-97
Keywords Dressage; Horse; Kinematics; Locomotion; Gait
Abstract Video analysis was used to measure temporal characteristics of the collected walk, extended walk and half pirouette at walk of eleven competitors during the team dressage competition at the 1996 Summer Olympic Games in Atlanta, GA. Forelimb stance durations, hind limb stance durations, lateral step intervals and diagonal step intervals were symmetrical for the right and left sides in the collected and extended walk strides, but there were left-right asymmetries in the forelimb stance duration and in the lateral step interval in the half pirouette strides. For both collected and extended walk strides, hind limb stance duration was significantly longer than forelimb stance duration. The mean values for the group of eleven horses showed that the collected and extended walks had a regular rhythm. The half pirouette strides showed an irregularity in which there was a short interval between footfalls of the outside forelimb and inside hind limb, and along interval between footfalls of the inside hind limb and inside forelimb. This irregularity reflected an early placement of the inside hind limb. The stance times of both hind limbs were prolonged and this finding, in combination with the early placement of the inside hind limb, led to an increase in the period of tripedal support in each stride of the half pirouette. This was interpreted as a means of maintaining the horses' balance in the absence of forward movement.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3960
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Author (up) Hoff, M.P.; Powell, D.M.; Lukas, K.E.; Maple, T.L.
Title Individual and social behavior of lowland gorillas in outdoor exhibits compared with indoor holding areas Type Journal Article
Year 1997 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 54 Issue 4 Pages 359-370
Keywords Behavior; Agonistic behavior; Spatial distribution; Primates; Social behavior; Housing; Zoo animals; Gorilla
Abstract The behavior of nine lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) living in three social groups at Zoo Atlanta was compared in an indoor holding area versus an outdoor exhibit. Focal animal data were collected for each animal during 15 min observation sessions, alternating between indoors and outdoors. A variety of solitary and social behaviors differed in the two conditions. All individual and social behaviors that showed a difference, except eating, occurred more indoors than outdoors. These included aggressive displays, reclining, self manipulation, and social examination of others. Additionally, the gorillas spent more time closer together in the indoor condition. A variety of other behaviors measured did not change between the two environments. There was a clear effect on behavior of the different housing conditions in which the gorillas were kept. It is suggested that the differences in aggressive behavior may be related to environmental complexity. It is further suggested that zoos should be aware that differences in behavior reported by caretaking staff, researchers and visitors may be a reflection of the differing environmental circumstances in which the animals are observed.
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Call Number Serial 2143
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Author (up) Hogan, E.S.; Houpt, K.A.; Sweeney, K.
Title The effect of enclosure size on social interactions and daily activity patterns of the captive Asiatic wild horse (Equus przewalskii) Type Journal Article
Year 1988 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 21 Issue 1-2 Pages 147-168
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Abstract Two herds of Przewalski horses at the Minnesota Zoological Garden were observed during 1980 in each of 2 enclosures that differed in size. The larger enclosure was a 3.4-ha pasture; the smaller enclosure was a 17 x 30-m grass-less pen. One herd was composed of a stallion, 3 adult mares and 2 foals. The other consisted of a stallion and 2 mares. All occurrences of aggression, mutual grooming and snapping were recorded, and 5-min scan-samples of the activity state of each horse were taken. The time budgets, frequency of aggression and frequency of mutual grooming differed significantly with enclosure size for both herds. More time was spent pacing and milling in the smaller enclosure, and the frequency of aggressions and of mutual grooming was also higher. Only the foals exhibited snapping; frequency of snapping did not vary with enclosure size. More time was spent feeding in the larger enclosure. Provision of hay in the smaller enclosure eliminated the differences in time spent feeding. A second study was conducted during the spring of 1984 in an intermediate-sized enclosure, 0.4 ha, a sub-division of the pasture on which the horses were kept in 1980. One herd consisted of a stallion, 2 mares and 2 yearlings; the other consisted of a stallion, 3 mares and a foal. One of the stallions and all of the mares were those studied in 1980, but that stallion and one of the mares were in different herds than they had been in 1980. The frequency of aggression was similar to that observed in 1980.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 780
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Author (up) Hothersall, B.; Harris, P.; Sörtoft, L.; Nicol, C.J.
Title Discrimination between conspecific odour samples in the horse (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 126 Issue 1-2 Pages 37-44
Keywords Horse; Olfaction; Social discrimination; Urine; Faeces
Abstract Behavioural observations suggest that smell is important in social discriminations between horses but balanced studies of this capacity are lacking. We used a habituation-discrimination procedure to investigate the ability of horses to distinguish between pairs of odour samples from different individuals. In Study 1, separate tests were conducted for urine, faeces or fleece fabric previously rubbed on the coat (to pick up body odour samples (BOS)) and donor pairs differed in sex, and age. 10 pregnant mares each underwent three tests, one per sample type. A test consisted of three successive 2-min presentations of a sample from Individual A with a simultaneous presentation of a sample from Individual B during the final presentation. Doubly repeated measures ANOVA indicated a main effect of sample type on investigative response (df = 2, f = 7.98, P = 0.004): durations were longer for BOS than for urine or faeces but habituation across trials was most consistent for urine. In the final presentation, mares demonstrated discrimination by investigating the novel urine sample (B) more than the repeated sample (novel: median 8.0 s, IQR = 10; repeated: median 2.5 s, IQR = 6; z = -2.558, P = 0.008). In Study 2, urine samples from castrated male donors were used and neither mares nor their 4-month-old foals discriminated between samples from different individuals in the final presentation. The findings suggest that urine odour may contain some information that horses can use to discriminate between conspecifics. This may be limited to the level of broad categories such as sex or reproductive status; further investigation is needed to reveal what functional information can be transmitted and what compounds are involved.
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ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5134
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Author (up) Houpt, K.A.
Title Formation and dissolution of the mare-foal bond Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 78 Issue 2-4 Pages 319-328
Keywords Maternal; Horse; Foal; Separation; Ontogeny
Abstract The behavior of mares at foaling and their behavior during subsequent weekly brief separations from their foals was quantified. Thirteen multiparous pony mares were observed for the first 30 min after foaling. Activities directed toward the foal and toward the fetal membranes were recorded. There were 16+/-8 contacts with the fetal membranes, most in the first 10 min post-partum. There were 81+/-12 activities directed toward the foal. There was a downward trend in foal contacts over the first 30 min. Eight of the 13 mares were observed for the 30-60 min post-partum during which licking and touching the foal continued. Only one of the foals suckled in the first 30 min, but half had suckled by 60 min. Ten mares and foals were separated for 5 min each week for 9 weeks. Although mare responses (neighs and steps) decreased with age of the foal, the foals' responses increased from weeks 1 to 2 and then decreased with foal age. This indicates that foal attachment to the mare is not complete until it is 2 weeks old.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3624
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Author (up) Houpt, K.A.; Fraser, A.F.
Title Przewalski horses Type Journal Article
Year 1988 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 21 Issue 1-2 Pages 1-3
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2302
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Author (up) Houpt, K.A.; Rudman, R.
Title Foreword to special issue on equine behavior Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 78 Issue 2-4 Pages 83-85
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 1986
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Author (up) i Rios, J.F.; Houpt, K.
Title Sexual behavior in geldings Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 46 Issue 1-2 Pages 133-135
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Abstract Abstract

In response to a request published in Equus, a magazine for those interested in horses, 85 owners of older geldings exhibiting sexual behavior completed history forms. The mean age of geldings was 16 f 5 years. Only 39 of the owners had had the gelding for at least a year before the behavior was noted. These cases could be used to determine the true age of onset of the problem. When log survivorship was used to determine whether there were one or two different populations, a break or change in the slope at age 16 indicated that there are two populations. One population shows the behavior from the time of castration and the other first exhibits the behavior in old age, possibly in response to an ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma. A total of 40% of the horses were Quarterhorses, the most numerous breed in the US; 78% of the horses were purebreds. Fewer than half the owners knew the age at which their horse had been castrated because they did not own the horse at the time.

The mean age at castration, when known, was 3.3 f 2.5 years. The reason for contacting us was sexual behavior (70%), aggression (24%). or some other problem ( 1 o/o). Whether or not aggression was the presenting problem, most of the horses showed aggression (95%), particularly towards other geldings (88%)) but also towards people (3 1%). Copulatory behavior (mounting) was shown by 69% of the geldings and half of those were able to intromit. These findings indicate that the sexual behavior of geldings is a problem for owners and that aggression usually accompanies sexual behavior.

The owners were encouraged to send serum samples taken before and after human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) administration for testosterone and estrone sulfate analysis to determine whether residual testicular tissue was responsible for the horse’s behavior. Of the 14 horses tested, only one had elevated levels of testosterone indicating that there was residual testicular tissue. A total of six of the owners agreed to treat their horses with cyproheptadine at a dose of 8 mg day- ’ gradually increased to 88 mg day- ’ per horse. A total of three of the horses showed a decline in sexual and aggressive behavior, one got worse and two had side effects and treatment was withdrawn.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3627
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