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Author Tebbich Sabine; Griffin Andrea S.; Peschl Markus F.; Sterelny Kim
Title From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume (down) 371 Issue 1690 Pages 20150195
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Abstract Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments.
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0195 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6557
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Author Thornton Alex; Lukas Dieter
Title Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume (down) 367 Issue 1603 Pages 2773-2783
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0214 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6555
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Author Van Schaik, C.P.; Burkart, J.M.
Title Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Philos Trans R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 366 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Van Schaik2011 Serial 6227
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Author Emery, N.J.; Clayton, N.S.; Frith, C.D.
Title Introduction. Social intelligence: from brain to culture Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Philos Trans R Soc B Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc B
Volume (down) 362 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Emery2007 Serial 6302
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Author Chapron, G.; Kaczensky, P.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Arx, M.; Huber, D.; Andrén, H.
Title Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 346 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Chapron2014 Serial 6451
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Author Ripple, W.J.; Estes, J.A.; Beschta, R.L.; Wilmers, C.C.; Ritchie, E.G.; Hebblewhite, M.
Title Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 343 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ripple2014 Serial 6445
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Author Bartal, I.B.-A.; Decety, J.; Mason, P.
Title Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume (down) 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1427-1430
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Abstract Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific�s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior.
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Notes 10.1126/science.1210789 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5725
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Author Hagen, S.J.; Eaton, W.A.
Title Two-state expansion and collapse of a polypeptide Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol
Volume (down) 301 Issue 4 Pages 1019-1027
Keywords Animals; Computer Simulation; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry/*metabolism; Horses; Kinetics; Lasers; Models, Chemical; Peptides/*chemistry/*metabolism; Protein Conformation; Protein Denaturation; *Protein Folding; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Temperature; Thermodynamics
Abstract The initial phase of folding for many proteins is presumed to be the collapse of the polypeptide chain from expanded to compact, but still denatured, conformations. Theory and simulations suggest that this collapse may be a two-state transition, characterized by barrier-crossing kinetics, while the collapse of homopolymers is continuous and multi-phasic. We have used a laser temperature-jump with fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the complete time-course of the collapse of denatured cytochrome c with nanosecond time resolution. We find the process to be exponential in time and thermally activated, with an apparent activation energy approximately 9 k(B)T (after correction for solvent viscosity). These results indicate that polypeptide collapse is kinetically a two-state transition. Because of the observed free energy barrier, the time scale of polypeptide collapse is dramatically slower than is predicted by Langevin models for homopolymer collapse.
Address Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Bethesda, MD, 20892-0520, USA
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ISSN 0022-2836 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:10966803 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3790
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Author Chapron, G.; Treves, A.
Title Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
Volume (down) 283 Issue 1830 Pages
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Abstract Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus) culling was substantially more likely to increase poaching than reduce it. Replicated, quasi-experimental changes in wolf policies in Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, revealed that a repeated policy signal to allow state culling triggered repeated slowdowns in wolf population growth, irrespective of the policy implementation measured as the number of wolves killed. The most likely explanation for these slowdowns was poaching and alternative explanations found no support. When the government kills a protected species, the perceived value of each individual of that species may decline; so liberalizing wolf culling may have sent a negative message about the value of wolves or acceptability of poaching. Our results suggest that granting management flexibility for endangered species to address illegal behaviour may instead promote such behaviour.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6379
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Holekamp, K.E.
Title Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Benson-Amram2012 Serial 6266
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