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Author Van Schaik, C.P.; Burkart, J.M.
Title Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Philos Trans R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 366 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Van Schaik2011 Serial 6227
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Author Emery, N.J.; Clayton, N.S.; Frith, C.D.
Title Introduction. Social intelligence: from brain to culture Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Philos Trans R Soc B Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc B
Volume (down) 362 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Emery2007 Serial 6302
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Author Chapron, G.; Kaczensky, P.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Arx, M.; Huber, D.; Andrén, H.
Title Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 346 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Chapron2014 Serial 6451
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Author Ripple, W.J.; Estes, J.A.; Beschta, R.L.; Wilmers, C.C.; Ritchie, E.G.; Hebblewhite, M.
Title Status and ecological effects of the world's largest carnivores Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 343 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ripple2014 Serial 6445
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Author Bartal, I.B.-A.; Decety, J.; Mason, P.
Title Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume (down) 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1427-1430
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Abstract Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific�s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior.
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Notes 10.1126/science.1210789 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5725
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Author Hagen, S.J.; Eaton, W.A.
Title Two-state expansion and collapse of a polypeptide Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol
Volume (down) 301 Issue 4 Pages 1019-1027
Keywords Animals; Computer Simulation; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry/*metabolism; Horses; Kinetics; Lasers; Models, Chemical; Peptides/*chemistry/*metabolism; Protein Conformation; Protein Denaturation; *Protein Folding; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Temperature; Thermodynamics
Abstract The initial phase of folding for many proteins is presumed to be the collapse of the polypeptide chain from expanded to compact, but still denatured, conformations. Theory and simulations suggest that this collapse may be a two-state transition, characterized by barrier-crossing kinetics, while the collapse of homopolymers is continuous and multi-phasic. We have used a laser temperature-jump with fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the complete time-course of the collapse of denatured cytochrome c with nanosecond time resolution. We find the process to be exponential in time and thermally activated, with an apparent activation energy approximately 9 k(B)T (after correction for solvent viscosity). These results indicate that polypeptide collapse is kinetically a two-state transition. Because of the observed free energy barrier, the time scale of polypeptide collapse is dramatically slower than is predicted by Langevin models for homopolymer collapse.
Address Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Bethesda, MD, 20892-0520, USA
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Notes PMID:10966803 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3790
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Author Chapron, G.; Treves, A.
Title Blood does not buy goodwill: allowing culling increases poaching of a large carnivore Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
Volume (down) 283 Issue 1830 Pages
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Abstract Quantifying environmental crime and the effectiveness of policy interventions is difficult because perpetrators typically conceal evidence. To prevent illegal uses of natural resources, such as poaching endangered species, governments have advocated granting policy flexibility to local authorities by liberalizing culling or hunting of large carnivores. We present the first quantitative evaluation of the hypothesis that liberalizing culling will reduce poaching and improve population status of an endangered carnivore. We show that allowing wolf (Canis lupus) culling was substantially more likely to increase poaching than reduce it. Replicated, quasi-experimental changes in wolf policies in Wisconsin and Michigan, USA, revealed that a repeated policy signal to allow state culling triggered repeated slowdowns in wolf population growth, irrespective of the policy implementation measured as the number of wolves killed. The most likely explanation for these slowdowns was poaching and alternative explanations found no support. When the government kills a protected species, the perceived value of each individual of that species may decline; so liberalizing wolf culling may have sent a negative message about the value of wolves or acceptability of poaching. Our results suggest that granting management flexibility for endangered species to address illegal behaviour may instead promote such behaviour.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6379
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Holekamp, K.E.
Title Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Benson-Amram2012 Serial 6266
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Padilla de la Torre, M.; McElligott, A.G.
Title Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2012 Serial 6282
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Author Liberg, O.; Chapron, G.; Wabakken, P.; Pedersen, H.C.; Hobbs, N.T.; Sand, H.
Title Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc Biol Sci Abbreviated Journal Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B
Volume (down) 279 Issue 1730 Pages 910-915
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Abstract Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6380
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