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Author Murphy, J.; Arkins, S.
Title Laterality and visuo-spatial ability in the equine: Functional measures of sport horse selection? Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication BSAP Occasional Publication Abbreviated Journal BSAP Occasional Publication
Volume 35 Issue Pages 159-170
Keywords
Abstract Laterality in any organism or species can be manifest as morphological, sensory and functional degrees of asymmetry such as hemispheric dominance, handedness or sidedness and other motor functional behaviours and as such is equally important in equitation. The influence of the horses' sex on both the direction and the degree of the laterality was explored within and between 4 experimental procedures in the 1st study. The findings showed that the direction, but not the degree of idiosyncratic motor preference in the horses was strongly sex-related. Male horses exhibited significantly more left lateralized responses and female horses exhibited significantly more right lateralized responses. Visuo-spatial ability is also likely to be important in the performance horse. In many species, moderate to large differences in visuo-spatial ability have been reported between the sexes, with superior visuo-spatial ability being reported in males of all species investigated to date. As no known studies had addressed visuo-spatial ability in the equine, the objective of the 2nd study, was to determine if visuo-spatial ability differed between male and female horses. The results produced the first behavioural demonstration of superior visuo-spatial ability in male horses, similar to that reported in other species. There is evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability and motor laterality are associated with cerebral hemispheric asymmetry and may be intrinsically linked. Brain development and laterality have also been associated with hair patterning, and, in a 3rd study we attempted to identify predictors of lateral bias in motor behaviour in horses. We investigated the relationship between the direction of facial hair whorl rotation and the incidence/direction of laterality in the horse. The findings suggest that direction of facial hair whorl rotation may be a useful indicator of lateralised motor behavioural preferences in the horse. We then attempted to establish if laterality was evident at birth in a 4th study, where we explored if neonatal foals exhibited lateralised patterns during and immediately post the birthing process that were correlated with their facial hair whorl patterns. The results showed a significant association between the sex of the foal and the choice of foreleg presented initially during 2nd stage parturition. Significantly more colt foals led with the left foreleg and significantly more filly foals led with the right foreleg than expected purely by random and the behaviour was correlated with facial hair whorl patterns. The findings also suggest that lateralisation in the horse is determined in utero as has also been shown in humans. Comparisons of wholly intact male and female horses are warranted as they might elucidate additional linkages between motor behaviour, visuo-spatial ability and brain organisation and development in the horse. Further research in this area could lead to more appropriate competition conditions (better fence design/construction on cross-country tracks) and so eliminate unnecessary levels of risk associated with many equestrian sports.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2018/02/27
ISSN 0263-967x ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6512
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Author Stecken, Paul
Title Bemerkungen und Zusammenhänge Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher FNverlag der Deutschen Reiterlichen Vereinigung GmbH Place of Publication wARENDORF Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-88542-889-3 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6511
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Author Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Haraldsson, H.
Title Significance of Group Composition for the Welfare of Pastured Horses Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords horse welfare; aggression; allogrooming; pastured horses; Icelandic horse
Abstract We explore how herd composition and management factors correlate with frequencies of social interactions in horse groups. Since the welfare of horses correlates with low aggression levels and social contact opportunities, information of this kind is important. The data are a collection of records of social interactions of 426 Icelandic horses in 20 groups of at least eight horses. The complexities and limitations of the data prohibit useful statistical modelling so the results are presented descriptively. Interesting and informative patterns emerge which can be of use both in management and in future studies. Of special interest are the low levels of agonistic behaviours in breeding groups where one stallion was present. The horses were less agonistic when in groups with young foals and where group membership was stable. Unfamiliar yearlings in peer groups were especially aggressive. Allogrooming was most frequent in groups with relatively more young horses and in unstable and small groups. Interestingly, the horses allogroomed more if they had few preferred allogrooming partners. The findings show that composition (age/sex) and stability of groups are of great importance with respect to aggression levels and opportunities for establishing bonds.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Animals
Series Volume 9 Series Issue 1 Edition
ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6510
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Author Plumer, L.; Talvi, T.; Männil, P.; Saarma, U.
Title Assessing the roles of wolves and dogs in livestock predation with suggestions for mitigating human-wildlife conflict and conservation of wolves Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Conservation Genetics Abbreviated Journal Conservat. Genet.
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 665-672
Keywords
Abstract Predation on livestock is a cause of serious and long-lasting conflict between farmers and wildlife, promoting negative public attitudes and endangering conservation of large carnivores. However, while large carnivores, especially the grey wolf (Canis lupus), are often blamed for killing sheep and other farm animals, free-ranging dogs may also act as predators. To develop appropriate measures for livestock protection, reliable methods for identifying predator species are critical. Identification of predators from visual examination of livestock wounds can be ambiguous and genetic analysis is strongly preferable for accurate species determination. To estimate the proportion of wolves and dogs implicated in sheep predation, we developed a sensitive genetic assay to distinguish between wolves and domestic dogs. A total of 183 predator saliva samples collected from killed sheep in Estonia were analysed. The assay identified the predator species in 143 cases (78%). Sheep were most often killed by wolves (81%); however, predation by dogs was substantial (15%). We compared the molecular results with field observations conducted by local environmental officials and recorded some disagreement, with the latter underestimating the role of dogs. As predator saliva samples collected from prey are often of poor quality, we suggest using mitochondrial DNA as a primary tool to maximise the number of successfully analysed samples. We also suggest adopting forensic DNA analysis more widely in livestock predation assessments as a legislative measure since misidentification that is biased against wolves can be counterproductive for conservation by enhancing conflict with society and leading to increased culling and poaching.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1572-9737 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Plumer2018 Serial (down) 6509
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Author Amodio, P.; Boeckle, M.; Schnell, A.K.; Ostojic, L.; Fiorito, G.; Clayton, N.S.
Title Grow Smart and Die Young: Why Did Cephalopods Evolve Intelligence? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends. Ecol. Evol.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract Intelligence in large-brained vertebrates might have evolved through independent, yet similar processes based on comparable socioecological pressures and slow life histories. This convergent evolutionary route, however, cannot explain why cephalopods developed large brains and flexible behavioural repertoires: cephalopods have fast life histories and live in simple social environments. Here, we suggest that the loss of the external shell in cephalopods (i) caused a dramatic increase in predatory pressure, which in turn prevented the emergence of slow life histories, and (ii) allowed the exploitation of novel challenging niches, thus favouring the emergence of intelligence. By highlighting convergent and divergent aspects between cephalopods and large-brained vertebrates we illustrate how the evolution of intelligence might not be constrained to a single evolutionary route.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.10.010 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6508
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Author Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M.; van Dalum, M.; VanDierendonck, M.
Title Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.
Volume 128 Issue Pages 39-45
Keywords Behaviour; Dressage; Horse; Hyperflexion; Rein tension; Stress
Abstract The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min dressage programme in either the competition frame (CF), hyperflexion (“Low-Deep-and-Round”; LDR) or a looser frame (LF) in a balanced order on three separate test days. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability parameters (HRV), behaviour and rein tension were recorded during the test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured 60min before and 0, 5, 15 and 30min after the test. Rein tension was significantly lower in LF and did not differ between CF and LDR; however approx. 15% of recordings in CF and LDR were above the sensor detection limit of 5kg. The horses had significantly higher cortisol concentrations directly after LDR compared to LF. In addition, the horses showed more distinctive head movements, including head waving, during LDR. There were no significant treatment effects on HR and HRV. In conclusion, the results indicate that LDR may be more stressful to these horses during riding.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6507
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Author McGreevy, P.; Yeates, J.
Title Horses (Equus caballus) Type Book Chapter
Year 2018 Publication Companion Animal Care and Welfare Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords animal company; behavioural signs; diseases; domestic horses; euthanasia; human interaction; nutritional requirements
Abstract Summary Domestic horses are equid members of the class Mammalia, order Perissodactyla, and family Equidae. Horses are obligate herbivores, with nutritional requirements as listed in a table. Adequate space is necessary for exercise, exploration, flight, sharing resources, play, and rolling. Company is essential for all horses, including stallions. Company provides opportunities for mutual grooming and play and allows horses to stand head-to-tail to remove flies. Unhandled horses may respond to humans as they would to predators, whereas handled horses' responses depend on their previous interactions with humans. Horses can suffer from several diseases as listed in another table. The best method of euthanasia of horses is usually sedation followed by either cranial shooting or the injection of an overdose of pentobarbitone into the jugular vein. Behavioural signs of distress can include increased locomotory activity, vigilance behaviours, neighing, snorting, pawing, nibbling walls and buckets, defaecation, rearing, kicking stable walls or doors, and high-stepping 'prancing'.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Wiley Online Books Abbreviated Series Title Companion Animal Care and Welfare
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 9781119333708 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes doi:10.1002/9781119333708.ch13 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6506
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.
Title Spatial relations between mares and foals of the Welsh pony (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim Beh
Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 1007-1015
Keywords
Abstract Welsh pony mares and foals (Equus caballus) were usually found to be within 1 or 5 m of each other during the first week of the foal's life and gradually spent more time at greater distances as the foals became older. There was an overall levelling of the trend during the 9th-15th weeks of life of the foal, followed by a second period of change during weeks 16-24. Through weeks 21-24, mares and foals spent at least half of their time within 5 m of each other. Proximity was primarily due to foal activity except during foal recumbency. During the first 8 weeks of the foal's life, a mare remained close by when it was recumbent, either by grazing in a circle around it or by standing upright beside it. Mares and foals were most likely to be close together when they were resting upright with the other ponies in the herd and most likely to be far apart when the foal was playing. Similarities in patterns of spatial relationship between the foals of a given mare were demonstrated. There was no difference between colts and filies in the development of independence.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6505
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Author Crowell-Davis, S.L.
Title Nursing behaviour and maternal aggression among Welsh ponies (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 1985 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl Anim Behav Sci
Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 11-25
Keywords
Abstract Nursing behaviour and related aggression of mare-foal pairs was studied from birth (n = 21) to 24 weeks of age (n = 15) of the foal. Foals exhibited a decreasing length and frequency of nursing as they grew older. Mares rarely aggressed against their foals during nursing in the foal's first 4 weeks of life, but did so increasingly through Weeks 13-16, after which the rate of aggression during nursing decreased. Mares terminated nursing primarily by moving away, and were most likely to do so during the foal's first 4 weeks of life. They became gradually less likely to do so as the foal grew older. It was concluded that mares sometimes flex their hind limb on the side opposite the foal during nursing in order to conserve energy in a situation in which they would be remaining still anyway. There was no difference between colts and fillies in the frequency or duration of nursing or in the frequency with which their mothers aggressed against them or terminated nursing.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6504
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Author Myslajek, R.W.; Tracz, M.; Tracz, M.; Tomczak, P.; Szewczyk, M.; Niedzwiecka, N.; Nowak, S.
Title Spatial organization in wolves Canis lupus recolonizing north-west Poland: Large territories at low population density Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Mammalian Biology Abbreviated Journal Mamm. Biol.
Volume 92 Issue Pages 37-44
Keywords Wolf recovery; Spatial organization; GPS/GSM telemetry; Central European wolf population
Abstract Monitoring of the wolf Canis lupus is a demanding task as it lives in low densities, utilizes vast home ranges and disperses over large areas. These factors make obtaining accurate data about population parameters over the whole distribution area of the species impossible. Thus detailed local studies on socio-spatial organization are essential to calibrate information obtained over a larger area. We applied GPS/GSM telemetry, non-invasive genetic sampling, year-round tracking, camera trapping and howling stimulations to determine the number of family groups, population density and home-range sizes of wolves in the Drawa Forest (DF, western Poland, 2500 km2), an area recently recolonized by the species. Home ranges of three collared male wolves ranged from 321.8 to 420.6 km2 (MCP 100%) and from 187.5 to 277.5 km2 (Kernel 95%), but core areas had a size of 30.5-84.7 km2 (MCP50%) and 35.0-88.8 km2 (Kernel 50%). Mean near neighbour distance between centres of 6 tracked pack homesites was 15.3 km. The number of wolves in DF increased from 14 individuals in 2013/2014 to 30 in 2016/2017. The annual rate of increase varied from 43% in 2014/2015 to 7% in the final year. Population density for the whole study area was relatively low (1.2 indiv./100 km2 in 2016/2017), but densities within territories of two packs studied with telemetry were 1.9 and 1.5 indiv./100 km2. Mean pack size varied between 3.5 and 5.6 individuals, with the largest pack comprising 8 wolves. Mean number of pups observed in summers (June-August) was 4.5. Differences in home range sizes between wolves in western and eastern Poland indicate that results of regional studies cannot be freely extrapolated despite close genetic relationships. Thus, decisions related to management of wolf habitats should be based on intensive local studies.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6503
Permanent link to this record