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Author Schwartz, L.P.; Silberberg, A.; Casey, A.H.; Kearns, D.N.; Slotnick, B.
Title Does a rat release a soaked conspecific due to empathy? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 299-308
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Abstract In Experiment 1, rats choosing in an E maze preferred to release a rat standing in a pool of water to dry ground over a rat already standing on dry ground. Five additional experiments showed that the choosing rat's preference for releasing the wet rat was maintained by two separable outcomes: (1) the social contact offered by the released rat and (2) the reinforcing value of proximity to a pool of water. These results call into question Sato et al.'s (Anim Cogn 18:1039-1047, 2015) claim to have demonstrated that a rat's releasing of a wet rat to dry ground is empathically motivated.
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Schwartz2017 Serial (down) 6559
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Author Rørvang, M.V.; Christensen, J.W.; Ladewig, J.; McLean, A.
Title Social Learning in Horses--Fact or Fiction? Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Frontiers in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal Front. Vet. Sci.
Volume 5 Issue Pages 212
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Abstract Prima facie, the acquisition of novel behaviors in animals through observation of conspecifics seems straightforward. There are, however, various mechanisms through which the behavior of animals can be altered from observing others. These mechanisms range from simple hard-wired contagious processes to genuine learning by observation, which differ fundamentally in cognitive complexity. They range from social facilitation and local enhancement to true social learning. The different learning mechanisms are the subject of this review, largely because research on learning by observation can be confounded by difficulties in interpretation owing to the looming possibility of associative learning infecting experimental results. While it is often assumed that horses are capable of acquiring new behavior through intra-species observation, research on social learning in horses includes a variety of studies some of which may overestimate the possession of higher mental abilities. Assuming such abilities in their absence can have welfare implications, e.g. isolating stereotypical horses on the assumption that these behaviors can be learned though observation by neighboring horses. This review summarizes the definitions and criteria for the various types of social transmission and social learning and reviews the current documentation for each type in horses with the aim of clarifying whether horses possess the ability to learn through true social learning. As social ungulates, horses evolved in open landscapes, exposed to predators and grazing most of the day. Being in close proximity to conspecifics may theoretically offer an opportunity to learn socially, however anti-predator vigilance and locating forage may not require the neural complexity of social learning. Given the significant energetic expense of brain tissue, it is likely that social facilitation and local enhancement may have been sufficient in the adaptation of equids to their niche. As a consequence, social learning abilities may be maladaptive in horses. Collectively, the review proposes a novel differentiation between social transmission (social facilitation, local and stimulus enhancement) and social learning (goal emulation, imitation). Horses are undoubtedly sensitive to intra-species transfer of information but this transfer does not appear to satisfy the criteria for social learning, and thus there is no solid evidence for true social learning in horses.
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ISSN 2297-1769 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6558
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Author Tebbich Sabine; Griffin Andrea S.; Peschl Markus F.; Sterelny Kim
Title From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 371 Issue 1690 Pages 20150195
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Abstract Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments.
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0195 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6557
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Author Griffin, A.S.; Guez, D.
Title Innovation and problem solving: A review of common mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 109 Issue Pages 121-134
Keywords Behavioural flexibility; Cognition; Innovation; Problem solving
Abstract Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild.
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ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6556
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Author Thornton Alex; Lukas Dieter
Title Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 367 Issue 1603 Pages 2773-2783
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2012.0214 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6555
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Author Birch, H.G.
Title The relation of previous experience to insightful problem-solving Type Journal Article
Year 1945 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol
Volume 38 Issue Pages 367-383
Keywords Humans; *Problem Solving; *Psychology, Comparative; *PSYCHOLOGY/comparative
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-9940 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21010765 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6554
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Author Bateson, P.
Title Play, playfulness, creativity and innovation. Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Animal Behavior and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav. Cogn.
Volume 1 Issue 2 Pages 99-112
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6553
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Author Preiszner, B.; Vincze, E.; Seress, G.; Papp, S.; Bókony, V.; Liker, A.; Lendvai, Á.Z.; Patras, L.; Pap, P.L.; Vágási, C.I.; Németh, J.
Title Necessity or capacity? Physiological state predicts problem-solving performance in house sparrows Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Behavioral Ecology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol.
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 124-135
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Abstract Innovative behaviors such as exploiting novel food sources can grant significant fitness benefits for animals, yet little is known about the mechanisms driving such phenomena, and the role of physiology is virtually unexplored in wild species. Two hypotheses predict opposing effects of physiological state on innovation success. On one hand, poor physiological condition may promote innovations by forcing individuals with poor competitive abilities to invent alternative solutions. On the other hand, superior physiological condition may ensure greater cognitive capacity and thereby better problem-solving and learning performance. To test these hypotheses, we studied the behavior of wild-caught house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in 4 novel tasks of food acquisition, one of which was presented to the birds in repeated trials, and we investigated the relationships of individual performance with relevant physiological traits. We found that problem-solving performance across the 4 tasks was moderately consistent within individuals. Birds with lower integrated levels of corticosterone, the main avian stress hormone, solved the most difficult task faster and were more efficient learners in the repeated task than birds with higher corticosterone levels. Birds with higher concentration of total glutathione, a key antioxidant, solved 2 relatively easy tasks faster, whereas birds with fewer coccidian parasites tended to solve the difficult task more quickly. Our results, thus, indicate that aspects of physiological state influence problem-solving performance in a context-dependent manner, and these effects on problem-solving capacity, probably including cognitive abilities, are more likely to drive individual innovation success than necessity due to poor condition.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1045-2249 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6552
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Author Hagen, K.; Broom, D.M.
Title Emotional reactions to learning in cattle Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 85 Issue 3 Pages 203-213
Keywords Cattle; Expressive behaviour; Operant learning; Reinforcer
Abstract It has been suggested that during instrumental learning, animals are likely to react emotionally to the reinforcer. They may in addition react emotionally to their own achievements. These reactions are of interest with regard to the animals' capacity for self-awareness. Therefore, we devised a yoked control experiment involving the acquisition of an operant task. We aimed to identify the emotional reactions of young cattle to their own learning and to separate these from reactions to a food reward. Twelve Holstein-Friesian heifers aged 7-12 months were divided into two groups. Heifers in the experimental group were conditioned over a 14-day period to press a panel in order to open a gate for access to a food reward. For heifers in the control group, the gate opened after a delay equal to their matched partner's latency to open it. To allow for observation of the heifers' movements during locomotion after the gate had opened, there was a 15m distance in the form of a race from the gate to the food trough. The heart rate of the heifers, and their behaviour when moving along the race towards the food reward were measured. When experimental heifers made clear improvements in learning, they were more likely than on other occasions to have higher heart rates and tended to move more vigorously along the race in comparison with their controls. This experiment found some, albeit inconclusive, indication that cattle may react emotionally to their own learning improvement.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6551
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Author Harlow, H.F.
Title Learning and satiation of response in intrinsically motivated complex puzzle performance by monkeys Type Journal Article
Year 1950 Publication Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Physiol Psychol
Volume 43 Issue 4 Pages 289-294
Keywords Animals; *Haplorhini; *Learning; *Motivation; *Psychology; *Satiation; *Learning; *Motivation; *Psychology
Abstract Two rhesus monkeys, given 60 two-hour sessions with a six-device mechanical puzzle showed clear evidence of learning, the curve showing ratio of incorrect to correct responses appearing quite comparable to similar curves obtained during externally rewarded situations. When, on the thirteenth day of tests, the subjects were presented with the puzzle 100 times at 6-minute intervals, the number of devices manipulated decreased regularly throughout the day, although there was no significant change in the number of times the problem assembly was attacked.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-9940 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15436888 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6550
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