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Author Broekhuis, F.; Madsen, E.K.; Klaassen, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predators and pastoralists: how anthropogenic pressures inside wildlife areas influence carnivore space use and movement behaviour Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Animal Conservation Abbreviated Journal Anim Conserv  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords cheetah; livestock; movement; human pressure; protected areas; space use  
  Abstract Abstract Across the globe, wildlife populations and their behaviours are negatively impacted by people. Protected areas are believed to be an antidote to increasing human pressures but even they are not immune to the impact of anthropogenic activities. Areas that have been set aside for the protection of wildlife therefore warrant more attention when investigating the impact of anthropogenic pressures on wildlife. We use cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus as a case study to explore how a large carnivore responds to anthropogenic pressures inside wildlife areas. Using GPS-collar data we investigate cheetah space use, both when moving and stationary, and movement parameters (speed and turn angles) in relation to human disturbance, distance to human settlement, livestock abundance and livestock site use inside wildlife areas. Space use was negatively influenced by human disturbance, resulting in habitat loss and fragmentation and potentially reducing landscape permeability between neighbouring wildlife areas. Cheetahs were also less likely to stop in areas where livestock numbers were high, but more likely to stop in areas that were frequently used by livestock. The latter could reflect that cheetahs are attracted to livestock however, cheetahs in the study area rarely predated on livestock. It is therefore more likely that areas that are frequently used by livestock attract wild herbivores, which in turn could influence cheetah space use. We did not find any effects of people and livestock on cheetahs? speed and turn angles which might be related to the resolution of the data. We found that cheetahs are sensitive to human pressures and we believe that they could be an indicator species for other large carnivores facing similar challenges. We suggest that further research is needed to determine the levels of anthropogenic pressures needed to maintain ecological integrity, especially inside wildlife areas.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Ltd (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1367-9430 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1111/acv.12483 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6522  
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Author Gholib, G.; Heistermann, M.; Agil, M.; Supriatna, I.; Purwantara, B.; Nugraha, T.P.; Engelhardt, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparison of fecal preservation and extraction methods for steroid hormone metabolite analysis in wild crested macaques Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Primates Abbreviated Journal Primates  
  Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 281-292  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Since the non-invasive field endocrinology techniques were developed, several fecal preservation and extraction methods have been established for a variety of species. However, direct adaptation of methods from previous studies for use in crested macaques should be taken with caution. We conducted an experiment to assess the accuracy and stability of fecal estrogen metabolite (E1C) and glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) concentrations in response to several preservation parameters: (1) time lag between sample collection and fecal preservation; (2) long-term storage of fecal samples in 80% methanol (MeOH) at ambient temperature; (3) different degrees of feces drying temperature using a conventional oven; and (4) different fecal preservation techniques (i.e., freeze-drying, oven-drying, and field-friendly extraction method) and extraction solvents (methanol, ethanol, and commercial alcohol). The study used fecal samples collected from crested macaques (Macaca nigra) living in the Tangkoko Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Samples were assayed using validated E1C and GCM enzyme immunoassays. Concentrations of E1C and GCM in unprocessed feces stored at ambient temperature remained stable for up to 8 h of storage after which concentrations of both E1C and GCM changed significantly compared to controls extracted at time 0. Long-term storage in 80% MeOH at ambient temperature affected hormone concentrations significantly with concentrations of both E1C and GCM increasing after 6 and 4 months of storage, respectively. Drying fecal samples using a conventional oven at 50, 70, and 90 °C did not affect the E1C concentrations, but led to a significant decline for GCM concentrations in samples dried at 90 °C. Different fecal preservation techniques and extraction solvents provided similar results for both E1C and GCM concentrations. Our results confirm previous studies that prior to application of fecal hormone analysis in a new species, several preservation parameters should be evaluated for their effects on hormone metabolite stability. The results also provide several options for fecal preservation, extraction, and storage methods that can be selected depending on the condition of the field site and laboratory.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1610-7365 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gholib2018 Serial (down) 6521  
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Author Palme, R.; Touma, C.; Arias, N., Dominchin, M.N.; Lepschy, M. openurl 
  Title Steroid extraction: Get the best out of faecal samples Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Wiener Tierärztliche Wochenschriften Abbreviated Journal Wien Tierärztl Monat – Vet Med Austria  
  Volume 100 Issue Pages 238-246.  
  Keywords Review, faeces, extraction, non-invasive hormone monitoring, stress, reproduction.  
  Abstract Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. The extraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quantification can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection of a proper extraction procedure is essential. There have been some studies to address this complex but often neglected point. Radiolabelled steroids (e.g. cortisol or progesterone) have frequently been added to faecal samples to estimate the efficiency of the extraction procedures used. However, native, unmetabolized steroids are normally not present in the faeces and therefore the results are artifi- cial and do not accurately reflect the actual recoveries of the substances of interest. In this respect, recovery experiments based on faecal samples from radiometabolism studies are more informative. In these samples, the metabolite content accurately reflects the mixture of metabolites present in the given species. As a result, it is possible to evaluate different extraction methods for use with faecal samples. We present studies on sheep, horses, pigs, hares and dogs that utilized samples containing naturally metabolized, 14C-labelled steroids. We recommend extracting faecal steroids by simply suspending the faeces in a high percentage of a primary alcohol (for glucocorticoid metabolites 80% aqueous methanol proved best suited for virtually all mammalian species tested so far). Not only does the procedure significantly increase the total amount of recovered radioactivity, it also increases the percentage of unconjugated metabolites, which are more likely to be recognized by the antibodies used in various immunoassays. The advantages of this extraction procedure are clear: it is very easy to use (no evaporation step is needed), it yields high recoveries and variation based on the extraction procedure is reduced to a minimum.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6520  
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Author Griebenow, K.; Klibanov, A.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lyophilization-induced reversible changes in the secondary structure of proteins Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Proc Natl Acad Sci USA Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 92 Issue 24 Pages 10969-10976  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Changes in the secondary structure of some dozen different proteins upon lyophilization of their aqueous solutions have been investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the amide III band region. Dehydration markedly (but reversibly) alters the secondary structure of all the proteins studied, as revealed by both the quantitative analysis of the second derivative spectra and the Gaussian curve fitting of the original infrared spectra. Lyophilization substantially increases the beta-sheet content and lowers the alpha-helix content of all proteins. In all but one case, proteins become more ordered upon lyophilization.  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6519  
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Author Hofmeester, T.R.; Cromsigt, J.P.G.M.; Odden, J.; Andrén, H.; Kindberg, J.; Linnell, J.D.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Framing pictures: A conceptual framework to identify and correct for biases in detection probability of camera traps enabling multi-species comparison Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords animal characteristics; detectability; environmental variables; mammal monitoring; reuse of data; trail camera  
  Abstract Abstract Obtaining reliable species observations is of great importance in animal ecology and wildlife conservation. An increasing number of studies use camera traps (CTs) to study wildlife communities, and an increasing effort is made to make better use and reuse of the large amounts of data that are produced. It is in these circumstances that it becomes paramount to correct for the species- and study-specific variation in imperfect detection within CTs. We reviewed the literature and used our own experience to compile a list of factors that affect CT detection of animals. We did this within a conceptual framework of six distinct scales separating out the influences of (a) animal characteristics, (b) CT specifications, (c) CT set-up protocols, and (d) environmental variables. We identified 40 factors that can potentially influence the detection of animals by CTs at these six scales. Many of these factors were related to only a few overarching parameters. Most of the animal characteristics scale with body mass and diet type, and most environmental characteristics differ with season or latitude such that remote sensing products like NDVI could be used as a proxy index to capture this variation. Factors that influence detection at the microsite and camera scales are probably the most important in determining CT detection of animals. The type of study and specific research question will determine which factors should be corrected. Corrections can be done by directly adjusting the CT metric of interest or by using covariates in a statistical framework. Our conceptual framework can be used to design better CT studies and help when analyzing CT data. Furthermore, it provides an overview of which factors should be reported in CT studies to make them repeatable, comparable, and their data reusable. This should greatly improve the possibilities for global scale analyses of (reused) CT data.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1002/ece3.4878 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6518  
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Author Palme, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-invasive measurement of glucocorticoids: Advances and problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 199 Issue Pages 229-243  
  Keywords Glucocorticoids; Non-invasive; Faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites; Immunoassays; Physiological/biological validation  
  Abstract Glucocorticoids (GCs; i.e. cortisol/corticosterone) are a central component of the stress response and thus their measurement is frequently used to evaluate the impact of stressful situations. Their metabolites from faeces of various animal species are more and more taken as a non-invasive aid to assess GC release and thus adrenocortical activity. The current literature review includes an extensive collection (1327 papers) and evaluation (see also Supplementary Tables) of the literature on faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolite (FCM) analysis published to date. It aims at giving reference for researchers interested in implementing FCM analysis into their study or seeking to improve such methods by providing background knowledge on GC metabolism and excretion, conveying insights into methodological issues and stating caveats of FCM analysis and by highlighting prerequisites for and some examples of a successful application of such methods. Collecting faecal samples and analysing FCMs may appear simple and straightforward, but researchers have to select and apply methods correctly. They also need to be aware of the many pitfalls and potentially confounding factors and, last but not least, have to carefully interpret results. Applied properly, measurement of FCMs is a powerful non-invasive tool in a variety of research areas, such as (stress) biology, ethology, ecology, animal conservation and welfare, but also biomedicine.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Palme2019_attachment.pdf Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6517  
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Author Pawluski, J.; Jego, P.; Henry, S.; Bruchet, A.; Palme, R.; Coste, C.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages e0182257  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions...) on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares), from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia) also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks), early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6516  
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Author Maury, M.; Murphy, K.; Kumar, S.; Mauerer, A.; Lee, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spray-drying of proteins: effects of sorbitol and trehalose on aggregation and FT-IR amide I spectrum of an immunoglobulin G Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics Abbreviated Journal Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm.  
  Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 251-261  
  Keywords Immunoglobulin; Spray-drying; Stabilization; Sorbitol; Trehalose; Water replacement  
  Abstract An immunoglobulin G (IgG) was spray-dried on a Büchi 190 laboratory spray-dryer at inlet and outlet air temperatures of 130 and 190°C, respectively. The IgG solution contains initially 115mg/ml IgG plus 50mg/ml sorbitol. After dialysis, at least 80% of low molecular weight component was removed. After spray-drying the dialyzed IgG and immediate redissolution of the powder, an increase in aggregates from 1 to 17% occurred. A major shift towards increase β-sheet structure was detected in the spray-dried solid, which, however, reverted to native structure on redissolution of the powder. A correlation between aggregation determined by size exclusion chromatography and alterations in secondary structure determined by Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy could not therefore be established. On spray-drying a non-dialyzed, sorbitol-containing IgG only some 0.7% aggregates were formed. The sorbitol is therefore evidently able to stabilize partially the IgG during the process of spray-drying. Addition of trehalose to the liquid feed produced quantitatively the same stabilizing action on the IgG during spray-drying as did the sorbitol. This finding again points towards a water replacement stabilization mechanism. The IgG spray-dried powder prepared from the dialyzed liquid feed showed continued substantial aggregation on dry storage at 25°C. This was substantially less in the non-dialyzed, sorbitol-containing spray-dried powder. Addition of trehalose to both dialyzed and non-dialyzed system produced substantial improvement in storage stability and reduction in aggregate formation in storage. The quantitative stabilizing effect of the trehalose was only slightly higher than that of the sorbitol. Taken together, these results indicate that both the sorbitol and trehalose stabilize the IgG primarily by a water replacement mechanism rather than by glassy immobilization. The relevance of this work is its questioning of the importance of the usually considered dominance of glassy stabilization of protein in dried systems of high glass transition temperature, such as trehalose. The low glass transition temperature sorbitol produces almost equal process and storage stability in this case.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0939-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6515  
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Author Palm, A.-K.E.; Wattle, O.; Lundström, T.; Wattrang, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in horse saliva Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Abbreviated Journal Vet. Immunol. Immunolpathol.  
  Volume 180 Issue Pages 59-65  
  Keywords Equine; Secretory IgA; IgG; Saliva; Mucosal immunity  
  Abstract This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva. Results showed a mean concentration of 74μg SIgA/ml horse saliva and that there was a large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA concentration. For total IgG the mean concentration was approx. 5 times lower than that of SIgA, i.e. 20μg IgG/ml saliva and the inter-individual variation was lower than that observed for SIgA. The saliva-serum ratio for IgG isotypes IgG3/5 and IgG4/7 was also assessed in the sampled horses and this analysis showed that the saliva-serum ratio of IgG4/7 was in general approximately 4 times higher than that of IgG3/5. The large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA levels observed for the normal healthy horses in the present study emphasises the need for a large number of observations when studying this parameter especially in a clinical setting. Moreover, our results also indicated that some of the salivary IgG does not originate from serum but may be produced locally. Thus, these results provide novel insight, and a base for further research, into salivary antibody responses of horses.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0165-2427 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6514  
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Author Bonin, S.J.; Clayton, H.M.; Lanovaz, J.L.; Johnston, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparison of mandibular motion in horses chewing hay and pellets Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet. J.  
  Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 258-262  
  Keywords horse; temporomandibular joint; mastication; kinematics  
  Abstract Summary Reasons for performing study: Previous studies have suggested that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) kinematics depend on the type of food being masticated, but accurate measurements of TMJ motion in horses chewing different feeds have not been published. Hypothesis: The temporomandibular joint has a larger range of motion when horses chew hay compared to pellets. Methods: An optical motion capture system was used to track skin markers on the skull and mandible of 7 horses as they chewed hay and pellets. A virtual marker was created on the midline between the mandibles at the level of the 4th premolar teeth to represent the overall motion of the mandible relative to the skull during the chewing cycle. Results: Frequency of the chewing cycles was lower for hay than for pellets. Excursions of the virtual mandibular marker were significantly larger in all 3 directions when chewing hay compared to pellets. The mean velocity of the virtual mandibular marker during the chewing cycle was the same when chewing the 2 feeds. Conclusions: The range of mediolateral displacement of the mandible was sufficient to give full occlusal contact of the upper and lower dental arcades when chewing hay but not when chewing pellets. Potential relevance: These findings support the suggestion that horses receiving a diet high in concentrate feeds may require more frequent dental prophylactic examinations and treatments to avoid the development of dental irregularities associated with smaller mandibular excursions during chewing.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Medical Association (AMA) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.2746/042516407X157792 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6513  
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