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Author Zohary, D.; Tchernov, E.; Horwitz, L.K.
Title The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication J Zool Abbreviated Journal
Volume 245 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zohary1998 Serial 6240
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Holekamp, K.E.
Title Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Benson-Amram2012 Serial 6266
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Padilla de la Torre, M.; McElligott, A.G.
Title Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2012 Serial 6282
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Author Whiten, A.
Title Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication J Comp Psychol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 11 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Whiten1998 Serial 6291
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Author Bates, D.
Title Fitting linear mixed models in R Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication R News Abbreviated Journal
Volume 5 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bates2005 Serial 6293
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Author Zentall, T.R.; Sutton, J.E.; Sherburne, L.M.
Title True imitative learning in pigeons Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Psychol Sci Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zentall1996 Serial 6372
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Author Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitation: definitions, evidence, and mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 335-353
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Imitative Behavior; *Learning; Motivation; *Social Environment; Transfer (Psychology)
Abstract Imitation can be defined as the copying of behavior. To a biologist, interest in imitation is focused on its adaptive value for the survival of the organism, but to a psychologist, the mechanisms responsible for imitation are the most interesting. For psychologists, the most important cases of imitation are those that involve demonstrated behavior that the imitator cannot see when it performs the behavior (e.g., scratching one's head). Such examples of imitation are sometimes referred to as opaque imitation because they are difficult to account for without positing cognitive mechanisms, such as perspective taking, that most animals have not been acknowledged to have. The present review first identifies various forms of social influence and social learning that do not qualify as opaque imitation, including species-typical mechanisms (e.g., mimicry and contagion), motivational mechanisms (e.g., social facilitation, incentive motivation, transfer of fear), attentional mechanisms (e.g., local enhancement, stimulus enhancement), imprinting, following, observational conditioning, and learning how the environment works (affordance learning). It then presents evidence for different forms of opaque imitation in animals, and identifies characteristics of human imitation that have been proposed to distinguish it from animal imitation. Finally, it examines the role played in opaque imitation by demonstrator reinforcement and observer motivation. Although accounts of imitation have been proposed that vary in their level of analysis from neural to cognitive, at present no theory of imitation appears to be adequate to account for the varied results that have been found.
Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. Zentall@uky.edu
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ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:17024510 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 217
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Author Heyes, C.M.
Title Social learning in animals: categories and mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society Abbreviated Journal Biol. Rev.
Volume 69 Issue 2 Pages 207-231
Keywords Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Conditioning (Psychology); *Learning; Reinforcement (Psychology); *Social Behavior
Abstract There has been relatively little research on the psychological mechanisms of social learning. This may be due, in part, to the practice of distinguishing categories of social learning in relation to ill-defined mechanisms (Davis, 1973; Galef, 1988). This practice both makes it difficult to identify empirically examples of different types of social learning, and gives the false impression that the mechanisms responsible for social learning are clearly understood. It has been proposed that social learning phenomena be subsumed within the categorization scheme currently used by investigators of asocial learning. This scheme distinguishes categories of learning according to observable conditions, namely, the type of experience that gives rise to a change in an animal (single stimulus vs. stimulus-stimulus relationship vs. response-reinforcer relationship), and the type of behaviour in which this change is detected (response evocation vs. learnability) (Rescorla, 1988). Specifically, three alignments have been proposed: (i) stimulus enhancement with single stimulus learning, (ii) observational conditioning with stimulus-stimulus learning, or Pavlovian conditioning, and (iii) observational learning with response-reinforcer learning, or instrumental conditioning. If, as the proposed alignments suggest, the conditions of social and asocial learning are the same, there is some reason to believe that the mechanisms underlying the two sets of phenomena are also the same. This is so if one makes the relatively uncontroversial assumption that phenomena which occur under similar conditions tend to be controlled by similar mechanisms. However, the proposed alignments are intended to be a set of hypotheses, rather than conclusions, about the mechanisms of social learning; as a basis for further research in which animal learning theory is applied to social learning. A concerted attempt to apply animal learning theory to social learning, to find out whether the same mechanisms are responsible for social and asocial learning, could lead both to refinements of the general theory, and to a better understanding of the mechanisms of social learning. There are precedents for these positive developments in research applying animal learning theory to food aversion learning (e.g. Domjan, 1983; Rozin & Schull, 1988) and imprinting (e.g. Bolhuis, de Vox & Kruit, 1990; Hollis, ten Cate & Bateson, 1991). Like social learning, these phenomena almost certainly play distinctive roles in the antogeny of adaptive behaviour, and they are customarily regarded as 'special kinds' of learning (Shettleworth, 1993).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Address Department of Psychology, University College London
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ISSN 1464-7931 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:8054445 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 708
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Author Tyler, S.J.
Title The behaviour and social organisation of the new Forest ponies Type Journal Article
Year 1972 Publication Animal Behaviour Monograph Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav. Monogr.
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 85-196
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Call Number refbase @ user @; Equine Behaviour @ team @ room B 3.029 Serial 719
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Author Whiten, A.; Horner, V.; Litchfield, C.A.; Marshall-Pescini, S.
Title How do apes ape? Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Learning & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Learn. Behav.
Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 36-52
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Hominidae/*psychology; *Imitative Behavior; Imprinting (Psychology); *Learning; Psychological Theory; *Social Environment; *Social Facilitation
Abstract In the wake of telling critiques of the foundations on which earlier conclusions were based, the last 15 years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of social learning in apes. As a result, we are able to review 31 experimental studies from this period in which social learning in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans has been investigated. The principal question framed at the beginning of this era, Do apes ape? has been answered in the affirmative, at least in certain conditions. The more interesting question now is, thus, How do apes ape? Answering this question has engendered richer taxonomies of the range of social-learning processes at work and new methodologies to uncover them. Together, these studies suggest that apes ape by employing a portfolio of alternative social-learning processes in flexibly adaptive ways, in conjunction with nonsocial learning. We conclude by sketching the kind of decision tree that appears to underlie the deployment of these alternatives.
Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. a.whiten@st-and.ac.uk
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ISSN 1543-4494 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:15161139 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 734
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