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Author Laland K.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Learning & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Learn. Behav.  
  Volume 32 Issue (up) Pages 4-14  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In most studies of social learning in animals, no attempt has been made to examine the nature of the strategy adopted by animals when they copy others. Researchers have expended considerable effort in exploring the psychological processes that underlie social learning and amassed extensive data banks recording purported social learning in the field, but the contexts under which animals copy others remain unexplored. Yet, theoretical models used to investigate the adaptive advantages of social learning lead to the conclusion that social learning cannot be indiscriminate and that individuals should adopt strategies that dictate the circumstances under which they copy others and from whom they learn. In this article, I discuss a number of possible strategies that are predicted by theoretical analyses, including copy when uncertain, copy the majority, and copy if better, and consider the empirical evidence in support of each, drawing from both the animal and human social learning literature. Reliance on social learning strategies may be organized hierarchically, their being employed by animals when unlearned and asocially learned strategies prove ineffective but before animals take recourse in innovation.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4193  
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Author Creswell, J.W. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Research design Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue (up) Pages XXIX, 273 Seiten  
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  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Los Angeles Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-1-4522-7461-4 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6184  
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Author Kiliç, S.; Cantürk, G. doi  openurl
  Title Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Bulletin of Legal Medicine Abbreviated Journal Bull. Leg. Med.  
  Volume 22 Issue (up) Pages  
  Keywords animal vehicle collision, death, disability, horse, injury, motorway  
  Abstract Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey.

Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.

In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6206  
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Author Whiten, A.; Horner, V.; Litchfield, C.A.; Marshall-Pescini, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How do apes ape? Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Learning & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Learn. Behav.  
  Volume 32 Issue (up) 1 Pages 36-52  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Hominidae/*psychology; *Imitative Behavior; Imprinting (Psychology); *Learning; Psychological Theory; *Social Environment; *Social Facilitation  
  Abstract In the wake of telling critiques of the foundations on which earlier conclusions were based, the last 15 years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of social learning in apes. As a result, we are able to review 31 experimental studies from this period in which social learning in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans has been investigated. The principal question framed at the beginning of this era, Do apes ape? has been answered in the affirmative, at least in certain conditions. The more interesting question now is, thus, How do apes ape? Answering this question has engendered richer taxonomies of the range of social-learning processes at work and new methodologies to uncover them. Together, these studies suggest that apes ape by employing a portfolio of alternative social-learning processes in flexibly adaptive ways, in conjunction with nonsocial learning. We conclude by sketching the kind of decision tree that appears to underlie the deployment of these alternatives.  
  Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. a.whiten@st-and.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1543-4494 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:15161139 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 734  
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Author Bates, L.A.; Byrne, R.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Creative or created: Using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Methods Abbreviated Journal Methods  
  Volume 42 Issue (up) 1 Pages 12-21  
  Keywords Anecdote; Creativity; Intelligence; Deception; Innovation; African elephant  
  Abstract In non-human animals, creative behaviour occurs spontaneously only at low frequencies, so is typically missed by standardised observational methods. Experimental approaches have tended to rely overly on paradigms from child development or adult human cognition, which may be inappropriate for species that inhabit very different perceptual worlds and possess quite different motor capacities than humans. The analysis of anecdotes offers a solution to this impasse, provided certain conditions are met. To be reliable, anecdotes must be recorded immediately after observation, and only the records of scientists experienced with the species and the individuals concerned should be used. Even then, interpretation of a single record is always ambiguous, and analysis is feasible only when collation of multiple records shows that a behaviour pattern occurs repeatedly under similar circumstances. This approach has been used successfully to study a number of creative capacities of animals: the distribution, nature and neural correlates of deception across the primate order; the occurrence of teaching in animals; and the neural correlates of several aptitudes--in birds, foraging innovation, and in primates, innovation, social learning and tool-use. Drawing on these approaches, we describe the use of this method to investigate a new problem, the cognition of the African elephant, a species whose sheer size and evolutionary distance from humans renders the conventional methods of comparative psychology of little use. The aim is both to chart the creative cognitive capacities of this species, and to devise appropriate experimental methods to confirm and extend previous findings.  
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  ISSN 1046-2023 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes also special issue: Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Creativity: A Toolkit Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6185  
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Author Reader, S.M. doi  openurl
  Title Innovation and social learning: individual variation and brain evolution Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Animal Biology (formerly Netherlands Journal of Zoology) Abbreviated Journal Anim. Biol. Leiden.  
  Volume 53 Issue (up) 2 Pages 147-158  
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  Abstract This paper reviews behavioural, neurological and cognitive correlates of innovation at the individual, population and species level, focusing on birds and primates. Innovation, new or modified learned behaviour not previously found in the population, is the first stage in many instances of cultural transmission and may play an important role in the lives of animals with generalist or opportunistic lifestyles. Within-species, innovation is associated with low neophobia, high neophilia, and with high social learning propensities. Indices of innovatory propensities can be calculated for taxonomic groups by counting the frequency of reports of innovation in published literature. These innovation rate data provide a useful comparative measure for studies of behavioural flexibility and cognition. Innovation rate is positively correlated with the relative size of association areas in the brain, namely the hyperstriatum ventrale and neostriatum in birds, and the neocortex and striatum in primates. Innovation rate is also positively correlated with the reported variety of tool use, as well as interspecific differences in learning. Current evidence thus suggests similar patterns of cognitive evolution in primates and birds.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3395  
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Author Hampson, B.A.; Zabek, M.A.; Pollitt, C.C.; Nock, B. url  openurl
  Title Health and behaviour consequences of feral horse relocation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Rangel. J. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue (up) 2 Pages 173-180  
  Keywords equine, GPS, movement, range.  
  Abstract Despite ongoing projects involving the breeding and release of equids into semi-wild and wild environments, insufficient information is available in the literature that describes strategies used by equids to adapt and survive in a novel environment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of naïve, feral Equus caballus (horse) mares to cope in a novel feral horse environment and investigate possible reasons why some may not survive this challenge. Four mares taken from a semi-arid desert environment remained in good health but significantly changed their movement behaviour pattern when surrounded by prime grazing habitat in a mesic temperate grassland. Three of the four mares captured from the prime grazing habitat and released in the semi-arid desert habitat died, apparently due to stress and/or starvation, within 8 weeks of release. The fourth mare survived 4 months but lost considerable weight.The group of mares relocated to the semi-arid desert environment had difficulty adapting to relocation and did not take up the movement behaviour strategy of local horses, which required long distance treks from a central water hole to distant feeding areas at least 15 km away. The movement behaviour, range use and health consequences of relocating equids may be of interest to wildlife ecologists, animal behaviourists and horse welfare groups. The observations may be used to guide those intending on relocating managed domestic and native horses to novel habitats.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6210  
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Author Henderson, A.J.Z. doi  openurl
  Title Don't fence me in: managing psychological well being for elite performance horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science : JAAWS Abbreviated Journal J. Appl. Anim. Welf. Sci.  
  Volume 10 Issue (up) 4 Pages 309-329  
  Keywords *Animal Husbandry; Animal Welfare; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Horses/*psychology; *Physical Conditioning, Animal; *Stereotyped Behavior  
  Abstract This article posits that stereotypical behavior patterns and the overall psychological well being of today's performance horse could be substantially enhanced with care that acknowledges the relationship between domesticated horses and their forerunners. Feral horses typically roam in stable, social groups over large grazing territories, spending 16-20 hr per day foraging on mid- to poor-quality roughage. In contrast, today's elite show horses live in relatively small stalls, eat a limited-but rich-diet at specific feedings, and typically live in social isolation. Although the horse has been domesticated for more than 6000 years, there has been no selection for an equid who no longer requires an outlet for these natural behaviors. Using equine stereotypies as a welfare indicator, this researcher proposes that the psychological well being of today's performance horse is compromised. Furthermore, the article illustrates how minimal management changes can enhance horses' well being while still remaining compatible with the requirements of the sport-horse industry. The article discusses conclusions in terms of Fraser, Weary, Pajor, and Milligan's “integrative welfare model” (1997).  
  Address Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. zamoyska@shaw.ca  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1088-8705 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:17970632 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4363  
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Author Lefebvre, L.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D. doi  openurl
  Title Brains, Innovations and Evolution in Birds and Primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain. Behav. Evol.  
  Volume 63 Issue (up) 4 Pages 233-246  
  Keywords Innovation W Brain evolution W Hyperstriatum ventrale W Neostriatum W Isocortex W Birds W Primates W Tool use W Invasion biology  
  Abstract Abstract
Several comparative research programs have focusedon the cognitive, life history and ecological traits thataccount for variation in brain size. We review one ofthese programs, a program that uses the reported frequencyof behavioral innovation as an operational measureof cognition. In both birds and primates, innovationrate is positively correlated with the relative size of associationareas in the brain, the hyperstriatum ventrale andneostriatum in birds and the isocortex and striatum inprimates. Innovation rate is also positively correlatedwith the taxonomic distribution of tool use, as well asinterspecific differences in learning. Some features ofcognition have thus evolved in a remarkably similar wayin primates and at least six phyletically-independent avianlineages. In birds, innovation rate is associated withthe ability of species to deal with seasonal changes in theenvironment and to establish themselves in new regions,and it also appears to be related to the rate atwhich lineages diversify. Innovation rate provides a usefultool to quantify inter-taxon differences in cognitionand to test classic hypotheses regarding the evolution ofthe brain.
 
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  ISSN 0006-8977 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4738  
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Author Siniscalchi, M.; Padalino, B.; Aubé, L.; Quaranta, A. doi  openurl
  Title Right-nostril use during sniffing at arousing stimuli produces higher cardiac activity in jumper horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Laterality  
  Volume 20 Issue (up) 4 Pages 483-500  
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  Abstract Lateralization in horses, Equus caballus, has been reported at both motor and sensory levels. Here we investigated left- and right-nostril use in 12 jumper horses freely sniffing different emotive stimuli. Results revealed that during sniffing at adrenaline and oestrus mare urine stimuli, horses showed a clear right-nostril bias while just a tendency in the use of the right nostril was observed during sniffing of other odours (food, cotton swab and repellent). Sniffing at adrenaline and urine odours was also accompanied by increasing cardiac activity and behavioural reactivity strengthening the role of the right hemisphere in the analysis of intense emotion and sexual behaviour.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1357-650x ISBN Medium  
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  Notes doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2015.1005629 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6208  
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