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Author Reader, S.M. doi  openurl
  Title Innovation and social learning: individual variation and brain evolution Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Animal Biology (formerly Netherlands Journal of Zoology) Abbreviated Journal Anim. Biol. Leiden.  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 147-158  
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  Abstract This paper reviews behavioural, neurological and cognitive correlates of innovation at the individual, population and species level, focusing on birds and primates. Innovation, new or modified learned behaviour not previously found in the population, is the first stage in many instances of cultural transmission and may play an important role in the lives of animals with generalist or opportunistic lifestyles. Within-species, innovation is associated with low neophobia, high neophilia, and with high social learning propensities. Indices of innovatory propensities can be calculated for taxonomic groups by counting the frequency of reports of innovation in published literature. These innovation rate data provide a useful comparative measure for studies of behavioural flexibility and cognition. Innovation rate is positively correlated with the relative size of association areas in the brain, namely the hyperstriatum ventrale and neostriatum in birds, and the neocortex and striatum in primates. Innovation rate is also positively correlated with the reported variety of tool use, as well as interspecific differences in learning. Current evidence thus suggests similar patterns of cognitive evolution in primates and birds.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3395  
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Author Laland K.N. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social learning strategies Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Learning & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Learn. Behav.  
  Volume 32 Issue Pages 4-14  
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  Abstract In most studies of social learning in animals, no attempt has been made to examine the nature of the strategy adopted by animals when they copy others. Researchers have expended considerable effort in exploring the psychological processes that underlie social learning and amassed extensive data banks recording purported social learning in the field, but the contexts under which animals copy others remain unexplored. Yet, theoretical models used to investigate the adaptive advantages of social learning lead to the conclusion that social learning cannot be indiscriminate and that individuals should adopt strategies that dictate the circumstances under which they copy others and from whom they learn. In this article, I discuss a number of possible strategies that are predicted by theoretical analyses, including copy when uncertain, copy the majority, and copy if better, and consider the empirical evidence in support of each, drawing from both the animal and human social learning literature. Reliance on social learning strategies may be organized hierarchically, their being employed by animals when unlearned and asocially learned strategies prove ineffective but before animals take recourse in innovation.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4193  
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Author Houpt, K.A. openurl 
  Title Equine behavior problems in relation to humane management Type Journal Article
  Year 1981 Publication Int. J. Stud. Anim Prob. Abbreviated Journal Int. J. Stud. Anim. Prob.  
  Volume 2 Issue 6 Pages 329-337  
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  Notes Cited By (since 1996): 7; Export Date: 21 October 2008 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4521  
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Author Bartal, I.B.-A.; Decety, J.; Mason, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1427-1430  
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  Abstract Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific�s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior.  
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  Notes 10.1126/science.1210789 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5725  
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Author Collins, G.H.; Petersen, S.L.; Carr, C.A.; Pielstick, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages e103189  
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  Abstract Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6209  
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Author Creswell, J.W. url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Research design Type Book Whole
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages XXIX, 273 Seiten  
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  Publisher Sage Place of Publication Los Angeles Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN (up) ISBN 978-1-4522-7461-4 Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6184  
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Author Hampson, B.A.; Zabek, M.A.; Pollitt, C.C.; Nock, B. url  openurl
  Title Health and behaviour consequences of feral horse relocation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Rangel. J. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 173-180  
  Keywords equine, GPS, movement, range.  
  Abstract Despite ongoing projects involving the breeding and release of equids into semi-wild and wild environments, insufficient information is available in the literature that describes strategies used by equids to adapt and survive in a novel environment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of naïve, feral Equus caballus (horse) mares to cope in a novel feral horse environment and investigate possible reasons why some may not survive this challenge. Four mares taken from a semi-arid desert environment remained in good health but significantly changed their movement behaviour pattern when surrounded by prime grazing habitat in a mesic temperate grassland. Three of the four mares captured from the prime grazing habitat and released in the semi-arid desert habitat died, apparently due to stress and/or starvation, within 8 weeks of release. The fourth mare survived 4 months but lost considerable weight.The group of mares relocated to the semi-arid desert environment had difficulty adapting to relocation and did not take up the movement behaviour strategy of local horses, which required long distance treks from a central water hole to distant feeding areas at least 15 km away. The movement behaviour, range use and health consequences of relocating equids may be of interest to wildlife ecologists, animal behaviourists and horse welfare groups. The observations may be used to guide those intending on relocating managed domestic and native horses to novel habitats.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6210  
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Author Kiliç, S.; Cantürk, G. doi  openurl
  Title Car Accident Due to Horse Crossing the Motorway: Two Case Reports Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication The Bulletin of Legal Medicine Abbreviated Journal Bull. Leg. Med.  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages  
  Keywords animal vehicle collision, death, disability, horse, injury, motorway  
  Abstract Basic Commercial Court in Ankara wanted a report from our department of forensic medicine about two injury cases due to animal vehicle collision. The reports should include the disability rate and the duration of unfunctionality. After the examination we prepared the reports. Both vehicle collisions happened due to free ranging horse crossing the motorway. Both cases had different types of injury due to trauma. Vehicle collision due to horse crossing the motorway is rarely met in Turkey.

Our first case is a man that had upper extremity and facial injury. He uses prothesis due to ear amputation. He has a scar tissue on the right side of his face and left forearm. The other case is three-years-old boy that had cranial bone fracture and cranial hematoma. He has also hemiparesis of the right side of body. Both cases have neurologic sequels but they have no psychiatric sequels.

In literature, animal vehicle collisions involve lots of animal species such as kangaroo, deer, camel and moose. Animal vehicle collision involving the horses is rarely met. Forensic medicine specialists should state the causal link between traumatic events and disabilities in order to help justice. Our aim to present the current two cases is investigation of injuries of animal related collision and makes forensic medicine specialists pay attention to the subject of preparing reports about such cases.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6206  
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Author Lefebvre, L.; Reader, S.M.; Sol, D. doi  openurl
  Title Brains, Innovations and Evolution in Birds and Primates Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Brain, Behavior and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Brain. Behav. Evol.  
  Volume 63 Issue 4 Pages 233-246  
  Keywords Innovation W Brain evolution W Hyperstriatum ventrale W Neostriatum W Isocortex W Birds W Primates W Tool use W Invasion biology  
  Abstract Abstract
Several comparative research programs have focusedon the cognitive, life history and ecological traits thataccount for variation in brain size. We review one ofthese programs, a program that uses the reported frequencyof behavioral innovation as an operational measureof cognition. In both birds and primates, innovationrate is positively correlated with the relative size of associationareas in the brain, the hyperstriatum ventrale andneostriatum in birds and the isocortex and striatum inprimates. Innovation rate is also positively correlatedwith the taxonomic distribution of tool use, as well asinterspecific differences in learning. Some features ofcognition have thus evolved in a remarkably similar wayin primates and at least six phyletically-independent avianlineages. In birds, innovation rate is associated withthe ability of species to deal with seasonal changes in theenvironment and to establish themselves in new regions,and it also appears to be related to the rate atwhich lineages diversify. Innovation rate provides a usefultool to quantify inter-taxon differences in cognitionand to test classic hypotheses regarding the evolution ofthe brain.
 
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  ISSN (up) 0006-8977 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4738  
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Author Bates, L.A.; Byrne, R.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Creative or created: Using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Methods Abbreviated Journal Methods  
  Volume 42 Issue 1 Pages 12-21  
  Keywords Anecdote; Creativity; Intelligence; Deception; Innovation; African elephant  
  Abstract In non-human animals, creative behaviour occurs spontaneously only at low frequencies, so is typically missed by standardised observational methods. Experimental approaches have tended to rely overly on paradigms from child development or adult human cognition, which may be inappropriate for species that inhabit very different perceptual worlds and possess quite different motor capacities than humans. The analysis of anecdotes offers a solution to this impasse, provided certain conditions are met. To be reliable, anecdotes must be recorded immediately after observation, and only the records of scientists experienced with the species and the individuals concerned should be used. Even then, interpretation of a single record is always ambiguous, and analysis is feasible only when collation of multiple records shows that a behaviour pattern occurs repeatedly under similar circumstances. This approach has been used successfully to study a number of creative capacities of animals: the distribution, nature and neural correlates of deception across the primate order; the occurrence of teaching in animals; and the neural correlates of several aptitudes--in birds, foraging innovation, and in primates, innovation, social learning and tool-use. Drawing on these approaches, we describe the use of this method to investigate a new problem, the cognition of the African elephant, a species whose sheer size and evolutionary distance from humans renders the conventional methods of comparative psychology of little use. The aim is both to chart the creative cognitive capacities of this species, and to devise appropriate experimental methods to confirm and extend previous findings.  
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  ISSN (up) 1046-2023 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes also special issue: Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Creativity: A Toolkit Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6185  
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