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Author Tebbich Sabine; Griffin Andrea S.; Peschl Markus F.; Sterelny Kim
Title From mechanisms to function: an integrated framework of animal innovation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume 371 Issue 1690 Pages (down) 20150195
Keywords
Abstract Animal innovations range from the discovery of novel food types to the invention of completely novel behaviours. Innovations can give access to new opportunities, and thus enable innovating agents to invade and create novel niches. This in turn can pave the way for morphological adaptation and adaptive radiation. The mechanisms that make innovations possible are probably as diverse as the innovations themselves. So too are their evolutionary consequences. Perhaps because of this diversity, we lack a unifying framework that links mechanism to function. We propose a framework for animal innovation that describes the interactions between mechanism, fitness benefit and evolutionary significance, and which suggests an expanded range of experimental approaches. In doing so, we split innovation into factors (components and phases) that can be manipulated systematically, and which can be investigated both experimentally and with correlational studies. We apply this framework to a selection of cases, showing how it helps us ask more precise questions and design more revealing experiments.
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Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
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Notes doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0195 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6557
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Author Clayton, H.M.; Hampson, A.; Fraser, P.; White, A.; Egenvall, A.
Title Comparison of rider stability in a flapless saddle versus a conventional saddle Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 13 Issue 6 Pages (down) e0196960
Keywords
Abstract The purpose of a saddle is to improve the rider's safety, security, and comfort, while distributing the forces exerted by the rider and saddle over a large area of the horse's back without focal pressure points. This study investigates the effects on rider stability of an innovative saddle design that differs from a conventional saddle in having no flaps. Five horses were ridden by their regular rider in their usual saddle and in a flapless saddle. A pressure mat (60 Hz) placed between the saddle and the horse's back was used to determine the position of the center of pressure, which represents the centroid of pressure distribution on the horse's back. Data were recorded as five horses were ridden at collected and extended walk, trot and canter in a straight line. Data strings were split into strides with 5 strides analysed per horse/gait/type. For each stride the path of the rider's center of pressure was plotted, maximal and minimal values in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were extracted, and ranges of motion in anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were calculated. Differences between the conventional and flapless saddles were analysed using mixed models ANOVA. Speed and stride length of each gait did not differ between saddles. Compared with the conventional saddle, the flapless saddle was associated with significant reductions in range of motion of the rider's center of pressure in the mediolateral direction in all gaits and in the anteroposterior direction in collected trot, extended trot and extended canter. The improved stability was thought to result from the absence of saddle flaps allowing the rider's thighs to lie in more adducted positions, which facilitated the action of the lumbopelvic-hip musculature in stabilizing and controlling translations and rotations of the pelvis and trunk. The closer contact between rider and horse may also have augmented the transfer of haptic information.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6423
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Author Santiago-Avila, F.J.; Cornman, A.M.; Treves, A.
Title Killing wolves to prevent predation on livestock may protect one farm but harm neighbors Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages (down) e0189729
Keywords
Abstract Large carnivores, such as gray wolves, Canis lupus, are difficult to protect in mixed-use landscapes because some people perceive them as dangerous and because they sometimes threaten human property and safety. Governments may respond by killing carnivores in an effort to prevent repeated conflicts or threats, although the functional effectiveness of lethal methods has long been questioned. We evaluated two methods of government intervention following independent events of verified wolf predation on domestic animals (depredation) in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA between 1998-2014, at three spatial scales. We evaluated two intervention methods using log-rank tests and conditional Cox recurrent event, gap time models based on retrospective analyses of the following quasi-experimental treatments: (1) selective killing of wolves by trapping near sites of verified depredation, and (2) advice to owners and haphazard use of non-lethal methods without wolf-killing. The government did not randomly assign treatments and used a pseudo-control (no removal of wolves was not a true control), but the federal permission to intervene lethally was granted and rescinded independent of events on the ground. Hazard ratios suggest lethal intervention was associated with an insignificant 27% lower risk of recurrence of events at trapping sites, but offset by an insignificant 22% increase in risk of recurrence at sites up to 5.42 km distant in the same year, compared to the non-lethal treatment. Our results do not support the hypothesis that Michigan's use of lethal intervention after wolf depredations was effective for reducing the future risk of recurrence in the vicinities of trapping sites. Examining only the sites of intervention is incomplete because neighbors near trapping sites may suffer the recurrence of depredations. We propose two new hypotheses for perceived effectiveness of lethal methods: (a) killing predators may be perceived as effective because of the benefits to a small minority of farmers, and (b) if neighbors experience side-effects of lethal intervention such as displaced depredations, they may perceive the problem growing and then demand more lethal intervention rather than detecting problems spreading from the first trapping site. Ethical wildlife management guided by the “best scientific and commercial data available” would suggest suspending the standard method of trapping wolves in favor of non-lethal methods (livestock guarding dogs or fladry) that have been proven effective in preventing livestock losses in Michigan and elsewhere.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6502
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Author Pawluski, J.; Jego, P.; Henry, S.; Bruchet, A.; Palme, R.; Coste, C.; Hausberger, M.
Title Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages (down) e0182257
Keywords
Abstract The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions...) on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares), from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia) also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks), early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6516
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Author Zhang, Y.; Cao, Q.S.; Rubenstein, D.I.; Zang, S.; Songer, M.; Leimgruber, P.; Chu, H.; Cao, J.; Li, K.; Hu, D.
Title Water Use Patterns of Sympatric Przewalski's Horse and Khulan: Interspecific Comparison Reveals Niche Differences Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 10 Issue 7 Pages (down) e0132094
Keywords
Abstract Acquiring water is essential for all animals, but doing so is most challenging for desert-living animals. Recently Przewalski's horse has been reintroduced to the desert area in China where the last wild surviving member of the species was seen before it vanished from China in the1960s. Its reintroduction placed it within the range of a close evolutionary relative, the con-generic Khulan. Determining whether or not these two species experience competition and whether or not such competition was responsible for the extinction of Przewalski's horses in the wild over 50 years ago, requires identifying the fundamental and realized niches of both species. We remotely monitored the presence of both species at a variety of water points during the dry season in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Przewalski's horses drank twice per day mostly during daylight hours at low salinity water sources while Khulans drank mostly at night usually at high salinity water points or those far from human residences. Spatial and temporal differences in water use enables coexistence, but suggest that Przewalski's horses also restrict the actions of Khulan. Such differences in both the fundamental and realized niches were associated with differences in physiological tolerances for saline water and human activity as well as differences in aggression and dominance.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6377
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Author Roubová, V.; Konecná, M.; Smilauer, P.; Wallner, B.
Title Whom to Groom and for What? Patterns of Grooming in Female Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvanus) Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 10 Issue 2 Pages (down) e0117298
Keywords
Abstract Grooming is one of the most conspicuous social interactions among nonhuman primates. The selection of grooming partners can provide important clues about factors relevant for the distribution of grooming within a social group. We analyzed grooming behavior among 17 semi-free ranging female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We tested whether grooming is related to kinship, rank and friendship. Furthermore, we tested whether grooming is reciprocated or exchanged for rank related benefits (i.e. lower aggression and increased tolerance whilst feeding). We found that in general grooming was reciprocally exchanged, directed up the hierarchy and at the same time affected by friendship and kinship. Grooming was more frequent among individuals with higher friendship values as well as amongst related individuals. We also divided our data set on the basis of rank difference and tested if different power asymmetries between individuals affected the tendency to exchange grooming for rank related benefits and grooming reciprocation. In support of our initial hypothesis our results show that the reciprocation of grooming was a significant predictor of grooming interactions between individuals of similar rank, but not between those individuals more distantly separated in the social hierarchy. However, we did not find any evidence for grooming being exchanged for rank related benefits in either data set. Our results, together with previously published studies, illustrate the behavioral flexibility of macaques. It is clear that multiple studies of the same species are necessary to gather the data required for the solid comparative studies needed to shed light on patterns of grooming behavior in primates.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6415
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Author Collins, G.H.; Petersen, S.L.; Carr, C.A.; Pielstick, L.
Title Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages (down) e103189
Keywords
Abstract Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6209
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Author Pirault, P.; Danvy, S.; Verrier, E.; Leroy, G.
Title Genetic Structure and Gene Flows within Horses: A Genealogical Study at the French Population Scale Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages (down) e61544
Keywords
Abstract Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6215
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Author Petersen, J.L.; Mickelson, J.R.; Cothran, E.G.; Andersson, L.S.; Axelsson, J.; Bailey, E.; Bannasch, D.; Binns, M.M.; Borges, A.S.; Brama, P.; da Câmara Machado, A.; Distl, O.; Felicetti, M.; Fox-Clipsham, L.; Graves, K.T.; Guérin, G.; Haase, B.; Hasegawa, T.; Hemmann, K.; Hill, E.W.; Leeb, T.; Lindgren, G.; Lohi, H.; Lopes, M.S.; McGivney, B.A.; Mikko, S.; Orr, N.; Penedo, M.C.T.; Piercy, R.J.; Raekallio, M.; Rieder, S.; Røed, K.H.; Silvestrelli, M.; Swinburne, J.; Tozaki, T.; Vaudin, M.; M. Wade, C.; McCue, M.E.
Title Genetic Diversity in the Modern Horse Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNP Data Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages (down) e54997
Keywords
Abstract Horses were domesticated from the Eurasian steppes 5,000-6,000 years ago. Since then, the use of horses for transportation, warfare, and agriculture, as well as selection for desired traits and fitness, has resulted in diverse populations distributed across the world, many of which have become or are in the process of becoming formally organized into closed, breeding populations (breeds). This report describes the use of a genome-wide set of autosomal SNPs and 814 horses from 36 breeds to provide the first detailed description of equine breed diversity. FST calculations, parsimony, and distance analysis demonstrated relationships among the breeds that largely reflect geographic origins and known breed histories. Low levels of population divergence were observed between breeds that are relatively early on in the process of breed development, and between those with high levels of within-breed diversity, whether due to large population size, ongoing outcrossing, or large within-breed phenotypic diversity. Populations with low within-breed diversity included those which have experienced population bottlenecks, have been under intense selective pressure, or are closed populations with long breed histories. These results provide new insights into the relationships among and the diversity within breeds of horses. In addition these results will facilitate future genome-wide association studies and investigations into genomic targets of selection.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6214
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Author Burn, C.C.
Title A Vicious Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study of Canine Tail-Chasing and Human Responses to It, Using a Free Video-Sharing Website Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 6 Issue 11 Pages (down) e26553
Keywords
Abstract Tail-chasing is widely celebrated as normal canine behaviour in cultural references. However, all previous scientific studies of tail-chasing or 'spinning' have comprised small clinical populations of dogs with neurological, compulsive or other pathological conditions; most were ultimately euthanased. Thus, there is great disparity between scientific and public information on tail-chasing. I gathered data on the first large (n = 400), non-clinical tail-chasing population, made possible through a vast, free, online video repository, YouTube[TM]. The demographics of this online population are described and discussed. Approximately one third of tail-chasing dogs showed clinical signs, including habitual (daily or 'all the time') or perseverative (difficult to distract) performance of the behaviour. These signs were observed across diverse breeds. Clinical signs appeared virtually unrecognised by the video owners and commenting viewers; laughter was recorded in 55% of videos, encouragement in 43%, and the commonest viewer descriptors were that the behaviour was 'funny' (46%) or 'cute' (42%). Habitual tail-chasers had 6.5+/-2.3 times the odds of being described as 'Stupid' than other dogs, and perseverative dogs were 6.8+/-2.1 times more frequently described as 'Funny' than distractible ones were. Compared with breed- and age-matched control videos, tail-chasing videos were significantly more often indoors and with a computer/television screen switched on. These findings highlight that tail-chasing is sometimes pathological, but can remain untreated, or even be encouraged, because of an assumption that it is 'normal' dog behaviour. The enormous viewing figures that YouTube[TM] attracts (mean+/-s.e. = 863+/-197 viewings per tail-chasing video) suggest that this perception will be further reinforced, without effective intervention.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6378
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