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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K.
Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning
Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.

Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405
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Author Bartal, I.B.-A.; Decety, J.; Mason, P.
Title Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 334 Issue 6061 Pages 1427-1430
Keywords
Abstract Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific&#65533;s distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior.
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Notes 10.1126/science.1210789 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5725
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Author Gibbs, P.G.; Cohen, N.D.
Title Early management of race-bred weanlings and yearlings on farms Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Equine Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal J. Equine Vet. Sci.
Volume 21 Issue 6 Pages 279-283
Keywords Equine, management, growth, nutrition, marketing
Abstract A total of 58 Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse farms

that managed 1,987 weanlings and yearlings responded to

a survey designed to better characterize early management

of racing prospects. Average age at weaning was 5.5 months

and over half of all farms kept almost three-fourths of all

weanlings to be placed in pre-race training. Variation in

feeding practices was evident and while well over half

of all farms provided balanced nutrient supply to young

horses, 20% to 40% likely fed unbalanced diets. An obvious

preference existed for semi-confinement in young horses

with plenty of free exercise. The majority of farms reported

that young prospects were fed and managed for a moderate

rate of growth. Forced exercise occurred to a much larger

extent with yearlings than weanlings and 40% of farms

described the footing as soft, but not deep. Response to the

prevalence of developmental orthopedic diseases appeared

somewhat guarded, and average injury rate was low on

farms that attributed much of injury to horses playing too

hard. Technological advancements such as photoperiod

manipulation in broodmares were widely used, while

valuable tools such as body condition scoring were utilized

to a lesser extent.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5758
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Author Krueger, K.
Title Perissodactyla Cognition Type Book Chapter
Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-10
Keywords
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author (up) Thesis
Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6187
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Author Gaunitz, C.; Fages, A.; Hanghøj, K.; Albrechtsen, A.; Khan, N.; Schubert, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Owens, I.J.; Felkel, S.; Bignon-Lau, O.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Mittnik, A.; Mohaseb, A.F.; Davoudi, H.; Alquraishi, S.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Al-Rasheid, K.A.S.; Crubézy, E.; Benecke, N.; Olsen, S.; Brown, D.; Anthony, D.; Massy, K.; Pitulko, V.; Kasparov, A.; Brem, G.; Hofreiter, M.; Mukhtarova, G.; Baimukhanov, N.; Lõugas, L.; Onar, V.; Stockhammer, P.W.; Krause, J.; Boldgiv, B.; Undrakhbold, S.; Erdenebaatar, D.; Lepetz, S.; Mashkour, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wallner, B.; Merz, V.; Merz, I.; Zaibert, V.; Willerslev, E.; Librado, P.; Outram, A.K.; Orlando, L.
Title Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 6212
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Author Guidi, A.; Lanata, A.; Valenza, G.; Scilingo, E.P.; Baragli, P.
Title Validation of smart textile electrodes for electrocardiogram monitoring in free-moving horses Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal J. Vet. Behav.
Volume 17 Issue Pages 19-23
Keywords
Abstract This article focuses on the validation of smart textile electrodes used to acquire electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in horses in a comfortable and robust manner. The performance of smart textile electrodes is compared with standard Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of the percentage of motion artifacts (MAs, the noise that results from the movement of electrodes against the skin) and signal quality. Seven healthy Standardbred mares were equipped with 2 identical electronic systems for the simultaneous collection of ECGs. One system was equipped with smart textile electrodes, whereas the second was equipped with standard Ag/AgCl electrodes. Each horse was then monitored individually in a stall for 1 hour, without any movement constraints. The ECGs were visually examined by an expert who blindly labeled the ECG segments that had been corrupted by MAs. Finally, the percentage of MAs (MA%) was computed as the number of samples of the corrupted segments over the whole length of the signal. The total MA% was found to be lower for the smart textiles than for the Ag/AgCl electrodes. Consistent results were also obtained by investigating MAs over time. These results suggest that smart textile electrodes are more reliable when recording artifact-free ECGs in horses at rest. Thus, improving the acquisition of important physiological information related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, such as heart rate variability, could help to provide reliable information on the mood and state of arousal of horses.
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Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.10.001 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6213
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Author Karenina, K.; Giljov, A.; Ingram, J.; Rowntree, V.J.; Malashichev, Y.
Title Lateralization of mother&#65533;infant interactions in a diverse range of mammal species Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nature Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 1 Issue Pages 0030 Ep -
Keywords
Abstract Left-cradling bias is a distinctive feature of maternal behaviour in humans and great apes, but its evolutionary origin remains unknown. In 11 species of marine and terrestrial mammal, we demonstrate consistent patterns of lateralization in mother–infant interactions, indicating right hemisphere dominance for social processing. In providing clear evidence that lateralized positioning is beneficial in mother–infant interactions, our results illustrate a significant impact of lateralization on individual fitness.
Address
Corporate Author (up) Thesis
Publisher Nature Publishing Group SN - Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6040
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Author Palme, R.; Touma, C.; Arias,N.; Dominchin, M.F.; Lepschy, M.
Title Steroid extraction: Get the best out of faecal samples Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Veterinary Medicine Austria Abbreviated Journal Vet. Med. Austria
Volume 100 Issue Pages 238-246
Keywords
Abstract Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. Theextraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quantification can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection of a proper extraction procedure is essential. There have been some studies to address this complex but often neglected point. Radiolabelled

steroids (e.g. cortisol or progesterone) have frequently been added to faecal samples to estimate the efficiency of the extraction procedures used. However, native, unmetabolized steroids are normally not present in the faeces and therefore the results are artificial and do not accurately reflect the actual recoveries of the substances of interest. In this respect, recovery experiments based on faecal samples from radiometabolism studies are more informative. In these samples, the metabolite content accurately reflects the mixture of metabolites present in the given species. As a result, it is possible to evaluate different extraction methods for use with faecal samples. We present studies on sheep, horses, pigs, hares and dogs that utilized samples containing naturally metabolized, 14C-labelled steroids.
Address Review, faeces, extrac- tion, non-invasive hormone moni- toring, stress, reproduction.
Corporate Author (up) Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6046
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Author Ringhofer, M.; Yamamoto, S.
Title Erratum to: Domestic horses send signals to humans when they are faced with an unsolvable task Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 407-407
Keywords
Abstract Some domestic animals are thought to be skilled at social communication with humans due to the process of domestication. Horses, being in close relationship with humans, similar to dogs, might be skilled at communication with humans. Previous studies have indicated that they are sensitive to bodily signals and the attentional state of humans; however, there are few studies that investigate communication with humans and responses to the knowledge state of humans. Our first question was whether and how horses send signals to their potentially helpful but ignorant caretakers in a problem-solving situation where a food item was hidden in a bucket that was accessible only to the caretakers. We then examined whether horses alter their behaviours on the basis of the caretakers’ knowledge of where the food was hidden. We found that horses communicated to their caretakers using visual and tactile signals. The signalling behaviour of the horses significantly increased in conditions where the caretakers had not seen the hiding of the food. These results suggest that horses alter their communicative behaviour towards humans in accordance with humans’ knowledge state.
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Corporate Author (up) Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ringhofer2017 Serial 6135
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Author Griffin, A.S.; Tebbich, S.; Bugnyar, T.
Title Animal cognition in a human-dominated world Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
Keywords
Abstract In the USA, each year, up to one billion birds are estimated to die from colliding with windowpanes (Sabo et al. 2016). A further 573,000 are struck down by wind turbines, along with 888,000 bats (Smallwood 2013). Worldwide, unintended capture in fishing devices is recognized as the single most serious global threat to migratory, long-lived marine taxa including turtles, birds, mammals and sharks (Wallace et al. 2013). Estimates put the number of amphibians killed per year on Australian roads at 5 million (Seiler 2003). The likelihood of a green turtle erroneously ingesting plastic debris, often by mistaking them for food, rose from 30% in 1985 to almost 50% in 2012 (Schuyler et al. 2013). Human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC, sensu Sih et al. 2011) is filling animals’ environments with new threats which bear little or excessive similarity to those they have encountered in their evolutionary history (Dwernychuk and Boag 1972; Patten and Kelley 2010; Witherington 1997). As a consequence, many of the stimuli involved fall outside the adaptive processing space of animals’ evolutionary perceptual, learning, memory and decision-making systems, making individuals particularly vulnerable to their impact.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Griffin2017 Serial 6129
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