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Author (up) Briefer, E.F.; Haque, S.; Baciadonna, L.; McElligott, A.G.
Title Goats excel at learning and remembering a highly novel cognitive task Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Frontiers in Zoology Abbreviated Journal Front. Zool.
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 20
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Abstract The computational demands of sociality (maintaining group cohesion, reducing conflict) and ecological problems (extractive foraging, memorizing resource locations) are the main drivers proposed to explain the evolution cognition. Different predictions follow, about whether animals would preferentially learn new tasks socially or not, but the prevalent view today is that intelligent species should excel at social learning. However, the predictions were originally used to explain primate cognition, and studies of species with relatively smaller brains are rare. By contrast, domestication has often led to a decrease in brain size, which could affect cognition. In domestic animals, the relaxed selection pressures compared to a wild environment could have led to reduced social and physical cognition. Goats possess several features commonly associated with advanced cognition, such as successful colonization of new environments and complex fission-fusion societies. Here, we assessed goat social and physical cognition as well as long-term memory of a complex two-step foraging task (food box cognitive challenge), in order to investigate some of the main selection pressures thought to affect the evolution of ungulate cognition.
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ISSN 1742-9994 ISBN Medium
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2014 Serial 6376
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Author (up) Briefer, E.F.; McElligott, A.G.
Title Rescued goats at a sanctuary display positive mood after former neglect Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Appl Anim Behav Sci Abbreviated Journal
Volume 146 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2013 Serial 6287
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Author (up) Briefer, E.F.; Padilla de la Torre, M.; McElligott, A.G.
Title Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume 279 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2012 Serial 6282
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Author (up) Burch, J.W.; Layne, G.A.; Follmann, E.H.; Rexstad, E.A.
Title Evaluation of Wolf Density Estimation from Radiotelemetry Data Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Wildl Soc Bull Abbreviated Journal
Volume 33 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Burch2005 Serial 6477
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Author (up) Burla, J.-B.; Siegwart, J.; Nawroth, C.
Title Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate the Performance of Horses (Equus caballus) in a Spatial Problem-Solving Task Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Animal Abbreviated Journal Animal
Volume 8 Issue 6 Pages 96
Keywords detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition
Abstract Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and 16 horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each. One group received a human demonstration of how to solve the spatial task while the other group received no demonstration. We found that horses did not solve the detour task more often or faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when solving a spatial problem-solving task
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6392
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Author (up) Burn, C.C.
Title A Vicious Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study of Canine Tail-Chasing and Human Responses to It, Using a Free Video-Sharing Website Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 6 Issue 11 Pages e26553
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Abstract Tail-chasing is widely celebrated as normal canine behaviour in cultural references. However, all previous scientific studies of tail-chasing or 'spinning' have comprised small clinical populations of dogs with neurological, compulsive or other pathological conditions; most were ultimately euthanased. Thus, there is great disparity between scientific and public information on tail-chasing. I gathered data on the first large (n = 400), non-clinical tail-chasing population, made possible through a vast, free, online video repository, YouTube[TM]. The demographics of this online population are described and discussed. Approximately one third of tail-chasing dogs showed clinical signs, including habitual (daily or 'all the time') or perseverative (difficult to distract) performance of the behaviour. These signs were observed across diverse breeds. Clinical signs appeared virtually unrecognised by the video owners and commenting viewers; laughter was recorded in 55% of videos, encouragement in 43%, and the commonest viewer descriptors were that the behaviour was 'funny' (46%) or 'cute' (42%). Habitual tail-chasers had 6.5+/-2.3 times the odds of being described as 'Stupid' than other dogs, and perseverative dogs were 6.8+/-2.1 times more frequently described as 'Funny' than distractible ones were. Compared with breed- and age-matched control videos, tail-chasing videos were significantly more often indoors and with a computer/television screen switched on. These findings highlight that tail-chasing is sometimes pathological, but can remain untreated, or even be encouraged, because of an assumption that it is 'normal' dog behaviour. The enormous viewing figures that YouTube[TM] attracts (mean+/-s.e. = 863+/-197 viewings per tail-chasing video) suggest that this perception will be further reinforced, without effective intervention.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6378
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Author (up) Bücheler, T.; Sieg, J.H.
Title Understanding Science 2.0: Crowdsourcing and Open Innovation in the Scientific Method Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Procedia Computer Science Abbreviated Journal Proceedings of the 2nd European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition 2011 (FET 11)
Volume 7 Issue Pages 327-329
Keywords Crowdsourcing; Open Innovation; Simulation; Agent-Based Modeling; Science 2.0; Citizen Science
Abstract The innovation process is currently undergoing significant change in many industries. The World Wide Web has created a virtual world of collective intelligence and helped large groups of people connect and collaborate in the innovation process [1]. Von Hippel [2], for instance, states that a large number of users of a given technology will come up with innovative ideas. This process, originating in business, is now also being observed in science. Discussions around “Citizen Science” [3] and “Science 2.0” [4] suggest the same effects are relevant for fundamental research practices. “Crowdsourcing” [5] and “Open Innovation” [6] as well as other names for those paradigms, like Peer Production, Wikinomics, Swarm Intelligence etc., have become buzzwords in recent years. However, serious academic research efforts have also been started in many disciplines. In essence, these buzzwords all describe a form of collective intelligence that is enabled by new technologies, particularly internet connectivity. The focus of most current research on this topic is in the for-profit domain, i.e. organizations willing (and able) to pay large sums to source innovation externally, for instance through innovation contests. Our research is testing the applicability of Crowdsourcing and some techniques from Open Innovation to the scientific method and basic science in a non-profit environment (e.g., a traditional research university). If the tools are found to be useful, this may significantly change how some research tasks are conducted: While large, apriori unknown crowds of “irrational agents” (i.e. humans) are used to support scientists (and teams thereof) in several research tasks through the internet, the usefulness and robustness of these interactions as well as scientifically important factors like quality and validity of research results are tested in a systematic manner. The research is highly interdisciplinary and is done in collaboration with scientists from sociology, psychology, management science, economics, computer science, and artificial intelligence. After a pre-study, extensive data collection has been conducted and the data is currently being analyzed. The paper presents ideas and hypotheses and opens the discussion for further input.
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ISSN 1877-0509 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6434
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Do larger brains mean greater intelligence? Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain Sci.
Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 696-697
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Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor
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ISSN 1469-1825 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6171
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Author (up) Caldwell, C.A.; Whiten, A.
Title Testing for social learning and imitation in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus, using an artificial fruit Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 77-85
Keywords Animals; *Association Learning; Callithrix/*psychology; Discrimination Learning; *Feeding Behavior; Female; Food Preferences; Fruit; *Imitative Behavior; Male; *Social Behavior; Social Environment
Abstract We tested for social learning and imitation in common marmosets using an artificial foraging task and trained conspecific demonstrators. We trained a demonstrator marmoset to open an artificial fruit, providing a full demonstration of the task to be learned. Another marmoset provided a partial demonstration, controlling for stimulus enhancement effects, by eating food from the outside of the apparatus. We thus compared three observer groups, each consisting of four animals: those that received the full demonstration, those that received the partial demonstration, and a control group that saw no demonstration prior to testing. Although none of the observer marmosets succeeded in opening the artificial fruit during the test periods, there were clear effects of demonstration type. Those that saw the full demonstration manipulated the apparatus more overall, whereas those from the control group manipulated it the least of the three groups. Those from the full-demonstration group also contacted the particular parts of the artificial fruit that they had seen touched (localised stimulus enhancement) to a greater extent than the other two groups. There was also an interaction between the number of hand and mouth touches made to the artificial fruit for the full- and partial-demonstration groups. Whether or not these data represent evidence for imitation is discussed. We also propose that the clear differences between the groups suggest that social learning mechanisms provide real benefits to these animals in terms of developing novel food-processing skills analogous to the one presented here.
Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution and Scottish Primate Research Group, University of St Andrews, KY16 9JU, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. C.A.Caldwell@exeter.ac.uk
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ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:15069606 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 735
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Author (up) Chapron, G.; Kaczensky, P.; Linnell, J.D.C.; Arx, M.; Huber, D.; Andrén, H.
Title Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 346 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Chapron2014 Serial 6451
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