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Author (down) Zohary, D.; Tchernov, E.; Horwitz, L.K.
Title The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication J Zool Abbreviated Journal
Volume 245 Issue Pages
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zohary1998 Serial 6240
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Author (down) Zlatanova, D.; Ahmed, A.; Valasseva, A.; Genov, P.
Title Adaptive Diet Strategy of the Wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a Review Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA Abbreviated Journal Acta zool. bulg.
Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages 439-452
Keywords Wolf, Canis lupus, prey, adaptive strategy
Abstract The diet strategy of the wolf in Europe is reviewed on the basis of 74 basic and 14 additional literature

sources. The comparative analysis reveals clear dependence on the latitude (and, therefore, on the changing

environmental conditions) correlated with the wild ungulate abundance and diversity. Following a

geographic pattern, the wolf is specialised on different species of ungulates: moose and reindeer in Scandinavia,

red deer in Central and Eastern Europe and wild boar in Southern Europe. Where this large prey

is taken, the roe deer is hunted with almost the same frequency in every region. The wolf diet in Europe

shows two ecological adaptations formed by a complex of variables: 1. Wolves living in natural habitats

with abundance of wild ungulates feed mainly on wild prey. 2. In highly anthropogenic habitats, with low

abundance of wild prey, wolves feed on livestock (where husbandry of domestic animals is available) and

take also a lot of plant food, smaller prey (hares and rodents) and garbage food. The frequency of occurrence

of wild ungulates in the diet of wolves in North Europe varies from 54.0% in Belarus to 132.7% in

Poland, while that of livestock is in the range from 0.4% in Norway to 74.9% in Belarus. In South Europe,

the frequency of occurrence of wild prey varies from 0% in Italy and Spain to 136.0% in Italy, while of domestic

ungulates ranges between 0% and 100% in Spain. The low density or lack of wild prey triggers the

switch of the wolf diet to livestock, plant food (32.2-85% in Italy) or even garbage (up to 41.5% in Italy).
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6388
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Author (down) Zhang, Y.; Cao, Q.S.; Rubenstein, D.I.; Zang, S.; Songer, M.; Leimgruber, P.; Chu, H.; Cao, J.; Li, K.; Hu, D.
Title Water Use Patterns of Sympatric Przewalski's Horse and Khulan: Interspecific Comparison Reveals Niche Differences Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 10 Issue 7 Pages e0132094
Keywords
Abstract Acquiring water is essential for all animals, but doing so is most challenging for desert-living animals. Recently Przewalski's horse has been reintroduced to the desert area in China where the last wild surviving member of the species was seen before it vanished from China in the1960s. Its reintroduction placed it within the range of a close evolutionary relative, the con-generic Khulan. Determining whether or not these two species experience competition and whether or not such competition was responsible for the extinction of Przewalski's horses in the wild over 50 years ago, requires identifying the fundamental and realized niches of both species. We remotely monitored the presence of both species at a variety of water points during the dry season in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Przewalski's horses drank twice per day mostly during daylight hours at low salinity water sources while Khulans drank mostly at night usually at high salinity water points or those far from human residences. Spatial and temporal differences in water use enables coexistence, but suggest that Przewalski's horses also restrict the actions of Khulan. Such differences in both the fundamental and realized niches were associated with differences in physiological tolerances for saline water and human activity as well as differences in aggression and dominance.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6377
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.; Sutton, J.E.; Sherburne, L.M.
Title True imitative learning in pigeons Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Psychol Sci Abbreviated Journal
Volume 7 Issue Pages
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zentall1996 Serial 6372
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Author (down) Zentall, T.R.
Title Imitation: definitions, evidence, and mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Animal cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 9 Issue 4 Pages 335-353
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; *Imitative Behavior; *Learning; Motivation; *Social Environment; Transfer (Psychology)
Abstract Imitation can be defined as the copying of behavior. To a biologist, interest in imitation is focused on its adaptive value for the survival of the organism, but to a psychologist, the mechanisms responsible for imitation are the most interesting. For psychologists, the most important cases of imitation are those that involve demonstrated behavior that the imitator cannot see when it performs the behavior (e.g., scratching one's head). Such examples of imitation are sometimes referred to as opaque imitation because they are difficult to account for without positing cognitive mechanisms, such as perspective taking, that most animals have not been acknowledged to have. The present review first identifies various forms of social influence and social learning that do not qualify as opaque imitation, including species-typical mechanisms (e.g., mimicry and contagion), motivational mechanisms (e.g., social facilitation, incentive motivation, transfer of fear), attentional mechanisms (e.g., local enhancement, stimulus enhancement), imprinting, following, observational conditioning, and learning how the environment works (affordance learning). It then presents evidence for different forms of opaque imitation in animals, and identifies characteristics of human imitation that have been proposed to distinguish it from animal imitation. Finally, it examines the role played in opaque imitation by demonstrator reinforcement and observer motivation. Although accounts of imitation have been proposed that vary in their level of analysis from neural to cognitive, at present no theory of imitation appears to be adequate to account for the varied results that have been found.
Address Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA. Zentall@uky.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17024510 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 217
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Author (down) Zeder, M.A.
Title Pathways to animal domestication Type Book Chapter
Year 2011 Publication Harlan II: Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability Abbreviated Journal
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Publisher University of California Place of Publication Davis Editor Damania, A.; Gepts, P.
Language Summary Language Original Title
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zeder2011 Serial 6316
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Author (down) Zebisch, A.; May, A.; Reese, S.; Gehlen, H.
Title Effect of different head-neck positions on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Abbreviated Journal J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr
Volume 98 Issue 5 Pages 901-907
Keywords hyperflexion; head-neck position; stress; training; animal welfare
Abstract Summary Different head?neck positions (HNPs) are used in equestrian sports and are regarded as desirable for training and competition by riders, judges and trainers. Even though some studies have been indicative of hyperflexion having negative effects on horses, this unnatural position is frequently used. In the present study, the influence of different HNPs on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse was investigated. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood cortisol levels were measured in 18 horses. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) are power components in the frequency domain measurement of HRV which show the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Values were recorded at rest, while riding with a working HNP and while riding with hyperflexion of the horse's head, neck and poll. In addition, rideability and behaviour during the different investigation stages were evaluated by the rider and by an observer. Neither the HR nor the HRV showed a significant difference between working HNP (HR = 105 ± 22/min; LF/HF = 3.89 ± 5.68; LF = 37.28 ± 10.77%) and hyperflexion (HR = 110 ± 18; LF/HF = 1.94 ± 2.21; LF = 38.39 ± 13.01%). Blood cortisol levels revealed a significant increase comparing working HNP (158 ± 60 nm) and hyperflexion (176 ± 64 nm, p = 0.01). The evaluation of rider and observer resulted in clear changes of rideability and behavioural changes for the worse in all parameters collected between a working HNP and hyperflexion. In conclusion, changes of the cortisol blood level as a physical parameter led to the assumption that hyperflexion of head, neck and poll effects a stress reaction in the horse, and observation of the behaviour illustrates adverse effects on the well-being of horses during hyperflexion.
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Publisher Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0931-2439 ISBN Medium
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Notes doi: 10.1111/jpn.12155 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6427
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Author (down) Wolter, R.; Stefanski, V.; Krueger, K.
Title Parameters for the Analysis of Social Bonds in Horses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal
Volume 8 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords feral horses; mutual grooming; social bonds; social bond analysis; spatial proximity
Abstract Social bond analysis is of major importance for the evaluation of social relationships in group housed horses. However, in equine behaviour literature, studies on social bond analysis are inconsistent. Mutual grooming (horses standing side by side and gently nipping, nuzzling, or rubbing each other), affiliative approaches (horses approaching each other and staying within one body length), and measurements of spatial proximity (horses standing with body contact or within two horse-lengths) are commonly used. In the present study, we assessed which of the three parameters is most suitable for social bond analysis in horses, and whether social bonds are affected by individual and group factors. We observed social behaviour and spatial proximity in 145 feral horses, five groups of Przewalskiâ&#65533;&#65533;s horses (N = 36), and six groups of feral horses (N = 109) for 15 h per group, on three days within one week. We found grooming, friendly approaches, and spatial proximity to be robust parameters, as their correlation was affected only by the animalsâ&#65533;&#65533; sex (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.001, t = â&#65533;&#65533;2.7, p = 0.008) and the group size (GLMM: N = 145, SE < 0.001, t = 4.255, p < 0.001), but not by the horse breed, the aggression ratio, the social rank, the group, the group composition, and the individuals themselves. Our results show a trend for a correspondence between all three parameters (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.004, t = 1.95, p = 0.053), a strong correspondence between mutual grooming and friendly approaches (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.021, t = 3.922, p < 0.001), and a weak correspondence between mutual grooming and spatial proximity (GLMM: N = 145, SE = 0.04, t = 1.15, p = 0.25). We therefore suggest either using a combination of the proactive behaviour counts mutual grooming and friendly approaches, or using measurements of close spatial proximity, for the analysis of social bonds in horses within a limited time frame.
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ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6428
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Author (down) Whiten, A.; Horner, V.; Litchfield, C.A.; Marshall-Pescini, S.
Title How do apes ape? Type Journal Article
Year 2004 Publication Learning & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Learn. Behav.
Volume 32 Issue 1 Pages 36-52
Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Behavior, Animal; Hominidae/*psychology; *Imitative Behavior; Imprinting (Psychology); *Learning; Psychological Theory; *Social Environment; *Social Facilitation
Abstract In the wake of telling critiques of the foundations on which earlier conclusions were based, the last 15 years have witnessed a renaissance in the study of social learning in apes. As a result, we are able to review 31 experimental studies from this period in which social learning in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans has been investigated. The principal question framed at the beginning of this era, Do apes ape? has been answered in the affirmative, at least in certain conditions. The more interesting question now is, thus, How do apes ape? Answering this question has engendered richer taxonomies of the range of social-learning processes at work and new methodologies to uncover them. Together, these studies suggest that apes ape by employing a portfolio of alternative social-learning processes in flexibly adaptive ways, in conjunction with nonsocial learning. We conclude by sketching the kind of decision tree that appears to underlie the deployment of these alternatives.
Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. a.whiten@st-and.ac.uk
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1543-4494 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:15161139 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 734
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Author (down) Whiten, A.; Custance, D.M.; Gomez, J.C.; Teixidor, P.; Bard, K.A.
Title Imitative learning of artificial fruit processing in children (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol
Volume 110 Issue 1 Pages 3-14
Keywords Animals; Child, Preschool; Discrimination Learning; Female; Food Preferences/*psychology; *Fruit; Humans; *Imitative Behavior; Male; Mental Recall; Pan troglodytes/*psychology; Social Environment
Abstract Observational learning in chimpanzees and young children was investigated using an artificial fruit designed as an analog of natural foraging problems faced by primates. Each of 3 principal components could be removed in 2 alternative ways, demonstration of only one of which was watched by each subject. This permitted subsequent imitation by subjects to be distinguished from stimulus enhancement. Children aged 2-4 years evidenced imitation for 2 components, but also achieved demonstrated outcomes through their own techniques. Chimpanzees relied even more on their own techniques, but they did imitate elements of 1 component of the task. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence of chimpanzee imitation in a functional task designed to simulate foraging behavior hypothesized to be transmitted culturally in the wild.
Address Scottish Primate Research Group, University of St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland. aw2@st-andrews.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8851548 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 744
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