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Author Proops, L.; Grounds, K.; Smith, A.V.; McComb, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animals Remember Previous Facial Expressions that Specific Humans Have Exhibited Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 28 Issue 9 Pages 1428-1432.e4  
  Keywords affective processing; face processing; ; animal-human interaction; interspecific communication; animal memory  
  Abstract Summary For humans, facial expressions are important social signals, and how we perceive specific individuals may be influenced by subtle emotional cues that they have given us in past encounters. A wide range of animal species are also capable of discriminating the emotions of others through facial expressions [1, 2, 3, 4, 5], and it is clear that remembering emotional experiences with specific individuals could have clear benefits for social bonding and aggression avoidance when these individuals are encountered again. Although there is evidence that non-human animals are capable of remembering the identity of individuals who have directly harmed them [6, 7], it is not known whether animals can form lasting memories of specific individuals simply by observing subtle emotional expressions that they exhibit on their faces. Here we conducted controlled experiments in which domestic horses were presented with a photograph of an angry or happy human face and several hours later saw the person who had given the expression in a neutral state. Short-term exposure to the facial expression was enough to generate clear differences in subsequent responses to that individual (but not to a different mismatched person), consistent with the past angry expression having been perceived negatively and the happy expression positively. Both humans were blind to the photograph that the horses had seen. Our results provide clear evidence that some non-human animals can effectively eavesdrop on the emotional state cues that humans reveal on a moment-to-moment basis, using their memory of these to guide future interactions with particular individuals.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6394  
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Author Gille, C.; Hoischen-Taubner, S.; Spiller, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neue Reitsportmotive jenseits des klassischen Turniersports Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Sportwissenschaft Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 34-43  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Während die traditionellen Pferdesportdisziplinen Dressur- und Springreiten Mitglieder verlieren, haben sich weitere Pferdesportarten in Deutschland etabliert und erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebtheit. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den Hintergründen dieser Entwicklung. In einer empirischen Untersuchung wurden 1814 Reiter zu ihren Reitmotiven befragt. Mit Hilfe von Hauptkomponenten- und Clusteranalyse wurde eine Typologie gebildet, die ein differenziertes Bild der Motive verschiedener Reitergruppen ermöglicht. Während die leistungsorientierten Reiter eher in klassischen Reitsportdisziplinen vertreten sind, dominieren in moderneren Reitsportdisziplinen vor allem Genussmotive. Insgesamt entwickelt sich der Trend im Reitsport deutlich vom Drill in der Reitbahn hin zu mehr Entspannung, Erholung und Selbstverwirklichung. Der Wunsch, in der Freizeit Leistung zu bringen, sich mit anderen zu messen und Erfolg zu haben, ist nur noch für einen kleineren Teil der Pferdesportler bedeutsam. Aus der Verteilung der Motive ergeben sich neue Herausforderungen für den organisierten Reitsport, um den Spagat zwischen den Anforderungen der leistungsorientierten Sportreiter und den Erholungssuchenden zu meistern.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1868-1069 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gille2011 Serial (down) 6393  
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Author Burla, J.-B.; Siegwart, J.; Nawroth, C. doi  openurl
  Title Human Demonstration Does Not Facilitate the Performance of Horses (Equus caballus) in a Spatial Problem-Solving Task Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animal Abbreviated Journal Animal  
  Volume 8 Issue 6 Pages 96  
  Keywords detour task; equids; social cognition; social learning; spatial cognition  
  Abstract Horses’ ability to adapt to new environments and to acquire new information plays an important role in handling and training. Social learning in particular would be very adaptive for horses as it enables them to flexibly adjust to new environments. In the context of horse handling, social learning from humans has been rarely investigated but could help to facilitate management practices. We assessed the impact of human demonstration on the spatial problem-solving abilities of horses during a detour task. In this task, a bucket with a food reward was placed behind a double-detour barrier and 16 horses were allocated to two test groups of 8 horses each. One group received a human demonstration of how to solve the spatial task while the other group received no demonstration. We found that horses did not solve the detour task more often or faster with human demonstration. However, both test groups improved rapidly over trials. Our results suggest that horses prefer to use individual rather than social information when solving a spatial problem-solving task  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6392  
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Author Nakamura, K.; Takimoto-Inose, A.; Hasegawa, T. doi  openurl
  Title Cross-modal perception of human emotion in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 8660  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Humans have domesticated many kinds of animals in their history. Dogs and horses have particularly close relationships with humans as cooperative partners. However, fewer scientific studies have been conducted on cognition in horses compared to dogs. Studies have shown that horses cross-modally distinguish human facial expressions and recognize familiar people, which suggests that they also cross-modally distinguish human emotions. In the present study, we used the expectancy violation method to investigate whether horses cross-modally perceive human emotions. Horses were shown a picture of a human facial expression on a screen, and they then heard a human voice from the speaker before the screen. The emotional values of the visual and auditory stimuli were the same in the congruent condition and different in the incongruent condition. Horses looked at the speaker significantly longer in the incongruent condition than in the congruent condition when they heard their caretaker's voices but not when they heard the stranger voice. In addition, they responded significantly more quickly to the voice in the incongruent condition than in the congruent one. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that horses cross-modally recognized the emotional states of their caretakers and strangers.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Nakamura2018 Serial (down) 6391  
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Author Podlog, L.; Eklund, R.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Return to Sport after Serious Injury: A Retrospective Examination of Motivation and Psychological Outcomes Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Sport Rehabilitation Abbreviated Journal Journal of Sport Rehabilitation  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 20-34  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Context: It is argued in self-determination theory that the motivation underlying behavior has implications for health and well-being independent of the behavior itself. Objective: To examine associations between athlete motivations for returning to sport after injury and perceived psychological return-to-sport outcomes. Design: A correlational survey design was employed to obtain data in Canada, Australia, and England. Participants: Elite and subelite athletes (N = 180) with injuries requiring a minimum 2-month absence from sport participation. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed an inventory measuring perceptions of motivation to return to sport from a serious injury and psychological return-to-sport outcomes. Results: Correlational analyses revealed that intrinsic motivations for returning to competition were associated with a positive renewed perspective on sport participation. Conversely, extrinsic motivations for returning to sport were associated with increased worry and concern. Conclusions: The motivation underlying return to sport might play an important role in return-to-sport perceptions among elite and subelite athletes.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Human Kinetics Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1056-6716 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1123/jsr.14.1.20 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6390  
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Author Adelman, M.; Knijnik, J. doi  isbn
openurl 
  Title Gender and Equestrian Sport Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords British Equestrian Sport Canadian Show Jumping Cojones and Rejones Comparative Analysis Equestrian World through a Gender Lens Equestrianism during the 20th Century Fluid Masculinities on Brazilian Dressage Gender Studies and Equestrian Sport Horseracing and Gender in the United Kingdom Juvenile Equine Fiction for Girls Men and Horse Riding Spanish Mounted Bullfight Sport and Culture Swedish Equestrian Sports Women Riding Rodeo in Southern Brazil Women in Equestrian Polo  
  Abstract This volume brings together studies from various disciplines of the social sciences and humanities (Anthropology, Sociology, Cultural Studies, History and Literary theory) that examine the equestrian world as a historically gendered and highly dynamic field of contemporary sport and culture. From elite international dressage and jumping, polo and the turf, to the rodeo world of the Americas and popular forms of equestrian sport and culture, we are introduced to a range of issues as they unfold at local and global, national and international levels. Students and scholars of gender, culture and sport will find much of interest in this original look at contemporary issues such as “engendered” (women’s and men’s) dentities/subjectivities of equestrians, representations of girls, horses and the world of adventure in juvenile fiction; the current “feminization” of particular equestrian activities (and where boys and men stand in relation to this); how broad forms of social inequality and stratification play themselves out within gendered equestrian contexts; men and women and their relation to horses within the framework of current discussions on the relation of animals to humans (which may include not only love and care, but also exploitation and violence), among others. Singular contributions that incorporate a wide variety of classic and contemporary theoretical perspectives and empirical methodologies show how horse cultures around the globe contribute to historical and current constructions of embodied “femininities” and “masculinities”, reflecting a world that has been moving “beyond the binaries” while continuing to be enmeshed in their persistent and contradictory legacy. The final chapter makes a brave attempt at synthesizing individual chapters and moving forward from the evidences they provide, to suggest a compelling agenda for future research.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Dordrecht Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-94-007-6823-9 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6389  
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Author Zlatanova, D.; Ahmed, A.; Valasseva, A.; Genov, P. openurl 
  Title Adaptive Diet Strategy of the Wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Europe: a Review Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication ACTA ZOOLOGICA BULGARICA Abbreviated Journal Acta zool. bulg.  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages 439-452  
  Keywords Wolf, Canis lupus, prey, adaptive strategy  
  Abstract The diet strategy of the wolf in Europe is reviewed on the basis of 74 basic and 14 additional literature
sources. The comparative analysis reveals clear dependence on the latitude (and, therefore, on the changing
environmental conditions) correlated with the wild ungulate abundance and diversity. Following a
geographic pattern, the wolf is specialised on different species of ungulates: moose and reindeer in Scandinavia,
red deer in Central and Eastern Europe and wild boar in Southern Europe. Where this large prey
is taken, the roe deer is hunted with almost the same frequency in every region. The wolf diet in Europe
shows two ecological adaptations formed by a complex of variables: 1. Wolves living in natural habitats
with abundance of wild ungulates feed mainly on wild prey. 2. In highly anthropogenic habitats, with low
abundance of wild prey, wolves feed on livestock (where husbandry of domestic animals is available) and
take also a lot of plant food, smaller prey (hares and rodents) and garbage food. The frequency of occurrence
of wild ungulates in the diet of wolves in North Europe varies from 54.0% in Belarus to 132.7% in
Poland, while that of livestock is in the range from 0.4% in Norway to 74.9% in Belarus. In South Europe,
the frequency of occurrence of wild prey varies from 0% in Italy and Spain to 136.0% in Italy, while of domestic
ungulates ranges between 0% and 100% in Spain. The low density or lack of wild prey triggers the
switch of the wolf diet to livestock, plant food (32.2-85% in Italy) or even garbage (up to 41.5% in Italy).
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6388  
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Author Meriggi,A.; Lovari, S. openurl 
  Title A Review of Wolf Predation in Southern Europe: Does the Wolf Prefer Wild Prey to Livestock? Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Applled Ecology Abbreviated Journal J. Appl. Ecol  
  Volume 33 Issue Pages 1561-1571  
  Keywords Canis lupus, conservation, food habits, prey abundance, prey availability.  
  Abstract 1. The recent recovery of the wolf in southern Europe has not yet removed the risk
of local extinction. Wolf populations are fragmented and often comprise fewer than
500 individuals. In North America, northern and eastern Europe, wolves feed maiiily
on wild herbivores. In southern Europe, this canid has apparently adapted to feed
also on fruit, rubbish, livestock, small and medium-size mammals.
2. The main conservation problem lies with predation o n domestic ~ingulates,w liich
leads to extensive killing of wolves. The reintroduction of wild large herbivores has
been advocated as a means of reducing attacks on livestock, but predatiori on the
latter may remain high if domestic ungulates are locally abundant.
3. Our synthesis of 15 studies, published in the last 15 years, on food habits of the
wolf in southern Europe, has shown that ungulates have been the main diet component
overall. A significant inverse correlation was found between the occurrence (%) of
wild and domestic ungulates in the diet. The presence of relatively few wild ungulate
species was necessary to reduce predation on livestock.
4. Selection of wild and domestic ungulate prey was influenced mainly by their local
abundance, but also by their accessibility. Feeding dependence on rubbish was local
and rare. In Italy, the consumption of riibbish/fruit and that of ungulates was significantly
negatively correlated. Diet breadth increased as the presence of large prey
in tlie diet decreased.
5. The simultaneous reintroduction of severa1 wild ungulate species is likely to reduce
predation on livestock and may prove to be one of the most effective conservation
measures.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6387  
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Author Farmer, K.; Krüger, K.; Byrne, R.W.; Marr, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sensory laterality in affiliative interactions in domestic horses and ponies (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Many studies have been carried out into both motor and sensory laterality of horses in agonistic and stressful situations. Here we examine sensory laterality in affiliative interactions within four groups of domestic horses and ponies (N = 31), living in stable social groups, housed at a single complex close to Vienna, Austria, and demonstrate for the first time a significant population preference for the left side in affiliative approaches and interactions. No effects were observed for gender, rank, sociability, phenotype, group, or age. Our results suggest that right hemisphere specialization in horses is not limited to the processing of stressful or agonistic situations, but rather appears to be the norm for processing in all social interactions, as has been demonstrated in other species including chicks and a range of vertebrates. In domestic horses, hemispheric specialization for sensory input appears not to be based on a designation of positive versus negative, but more on the perceived need to respond quickly and appropriately in any given situation.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Farmer2018 Serial (down) 6386  
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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6385  
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