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Author Palme, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-invasive measurement of glucocorticoids: Advances and problems Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.  
  Volume 199 Issue Pages 229-243  
  Keywords Glucocorticoids; Non-invasive; Faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolites; Immunoassays; Physiological/biological validation  
  Abstract Glucocorticoids (GCs; i.e. cortisol/corticosterone) are a central component of the stress response and thus their measurement is frequently used to evaluate the impact of stressful situations. Their metabolites from faeces of various animal species are more and more taken as a non-invasive aid to assess GC release and thus adrenocortical activity. The current literature review includes an extensive collection (1327 papers) and evaluation (see also Supplementary Tables) of the literature on faecal cortisol/corticosterone metabolite (FCM) analysis published to date. It aims at giving reference for researchers interested in implementing FCM analysis into their study or seeking to improve such methods by providing background knowledge on GC metabolism and excretion, conveying insights into methodological issues and stating caveats of FCM analysis and by highlighting prerequisites for and some examples of a successful application of such methods. Collecting faecal samples and analysing FCMs may appear simple and straightforward, but researchers have to select and apply methods correctly. They also need to be aware of the many pitfalls and potentially confounding factors and, last but not least, have to carefully interpret results. Applied properly, measurement of FCMs is a powerful non-invasive tool in a variety of research areas, such as (stress) biology, ethology, ecology, animal conservation and welfare, but also biomedicine.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Palme2019_attachment.pdf Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6517  
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Author Pawluski, J.; Jego, P.; Henry, S.; Bruchet, A.; Palme, R.; Coste, C.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Low plasma cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite measures as indicators of compromised welfare in domestic horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages e0182257  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to chronic stress is far from straight forward, particularly with regards to animal welfare. There are reports of no effect as well as both decreases and increases in cortisol after chronic stressors. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to determine how measures of compromised welfare, such as chronic pain and haematological anomalies, related to cortisol levels in domestic horses (Equus caballus). Domestic horses are an informative model to investigate the impact of chronic stress (due to environment, pain, work, housing conditions...) on the HPA axis. The second aim was to determine whether levels of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) may be used as an indicator of welfare measures. The present study used fifty-nine horses (44 geldings and 15 mares), from three riding centres in Brittany, France. The primary findings show that horses whose welfare was clearly compromised (as indicated by an unusual ears backward position, presence of vertebral problems or haematological anomalies, e.g. anaemia) also had lower levels of both FCM and plasma cortisol. This work extends our previous findings showing that withdrawn postures, indicators of depressive-like behavior in horses, are associated with lower plasma cortisol levels. We also found that evening plasma cortisol levels positively correlated with FCM levels in horses. Future research aims to determine the extent to which factors of influence on welfare, such as living conditions (e.g. single stalls versus group housing in pasture or paddocks), early life factors, and human interaction, act as mediators of cortisol levels in horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6516  
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Author Maury, M.; Murphy, K.; Kumar, S.; Mauerer, A.; Lee, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spray-drying of proteins: effects of sorbitol and trehalose on aggregation and FT-IR amide I spectrum of an immunoglobulin G Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics Abbreviated Journal Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm.  
  Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 251-261  
  Keywords Immunoglobulin; Spray-drying; Stabilization; Sorbitol; Trehalose; Water replacement  
  Abstract An immunoglobulin G (IgG) was spray-dried on a Büchi 190 laboratory spray-dryer at inlet and outlet air temperatures of 130 and 190°C, respectively. The IgG solution contains initially 115mg/ml IgG plus 50mg/ml sorbitol. After dialysis, at least 80% of low molecular weight component was removed. After spray-drying the dialyzed IgG and immediate redissolution of the powder, an increase in aggregates from 1 to 17% occurred. A major shift towards increase β-sheet structure was detected in the spray-dried solid, which, however, reverted to native structure on redissolution of the powder. A correlation between aggregation determined by size exclusion chromatography and alterations in secondary structure determined by Fourier transformation infra-red spectroscopy could not therefore be established. On spray-drying a non-dialyzed, sorbitol-containing IgG only some 0.7% aggregates were formed. The sorbitol is therefore evidently able to stabilize partially the IgG during the process of spray-drying. Addition of trehalose to the liquid feed produced quantitatively the same stabilizing action on the IgG during spray-drying as did the sorbitol. This finding again points towards a water replacement stabilization mechanism. The IgG spray-dried powder prepared from the dialyzed liquid feed showed continued substantial aggregation on dry storage at 25°C. This was substantially less in the non-dialyzed, sorbitol-containing spray-dried powder. Addition of trehalose to both dialyzed and non-dialyzed system produced substantial improvement in storage stability and reduction in aggregate formation in storage. The quantitative stabilizing effect of the trehalose was only slightly higher than that of the sorbitol. Taken together, these results indicate that both the sorbitol and trehalose stabilize the IgG primarily by a water replacement mechanism rather than by glassy immobilization. The relevance of this work is its questioning of the importance of the usually considered dominance of glassy stabilization of protein in dried systems of high glass transition temperature, such as trehalose. The low glass transition temperature sorbitol produces almost equal process and storage stability in this case.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0939-6411 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6515  
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Author Palm, A.-K.E.; Wattle, O.; Lundström, T.; Wattrang, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Secretory immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G in horse saliva Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Abbreviated Journal Vet. Immunol. Immunolpathol.  
  Volume 180 Issue Pages 59-65  
  Keywords Equine; Secretory IgA; IgG; Saliva; Mucosal immunity  
  Abstract This study aimed to increase the knowledge on salivary antibodies in the horse since these constitute an important part of the immune defence of the oral cavity. For that purpose assays to detect horse immunoglobulin A (IgA) including secretory IgA (SIgA) were set up and the molecular weights of different components of the horse IgA system were estimated. Moreover, samples from 51 clinically healthy horses were tested for total SIgA and IgG amounts in saliva and relative IgG3/5 (IgG(T)) and IgG4/7 (IgGb) content were tested in serum and saliva. Results showed a mean concentration of 74μg SIgA/ml horse saliva and that there was a large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA concentration. For total IgG the mean concentration was approx. 5 times lower than that of SIgA, i.e. 20μg IgG/ml saliva and the inter-individual variation was lower than that observed for SIgA. The saliva-serum ratio for IgG isotypes IgG3/5 and IgG4/7 was also assessed in the sampled horses and this analysis showed that the saliva-serum ratio of IgG4/7 was in general approximately 4 times higher than that of IgG3/5. The large inter-individual variation in salivary SIgA levels observed for the normal healthy horses in the present study emphasises the need for a large number of observations when studying this parameter especially in a clinical setting. Moreover, our results also indicated that some of the salivary IgG does not originate from serum but may be produced locally. Thus, these results provide novel insight, and a base for further research, into salivary antibody responses of horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0165-2427 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6514  
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Author Bonin, S.J.; Clayton, H.M.; Lanovaz, J.L.; Johnston, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparison of mandibular motion in horses chewing hay and pellets Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet. J.  
  Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 258-262  
  Keywords horse; temporomandibular joint; mastication; kinematics  
  Abstract Summary Reasons for performing study: Previous studies have suggested that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) kinematics depend on the type of food being masticated, but accurate measurements of TMJ motion in horses chewing different feeds have not been published. Hypothesis: The temporomandibular joint has a larger range of motion when horses chew hay compared to pellets. Methods: An optical motion capture system was used to track skin markers on the skull and mandible of 7 horses as they chewed hay and pellets. A virtual marker was created on the midline between the mandibles at the level of the 4th premolar teeth to represent the overall motion of the mandible relative to the skull during the chewing cycle. Results: Frequency of the chewing cycles was lower for hay than for pellets. Excursions of the virtual mandibular marker were significantly larger in all 3 directions when chewing hay compared to pellets. The mean velocity of the virtual mandibular marker during the chewing cycle was the same when chewing the 2 feeds. Conclusions: The range of mediolateral displacement of the mandible was sufficient to give full occlusal contact of the upper and lower dental arcades when chewing hay but not when chewing pellets. Potential relevance: These findings support the suggestion that horses receiving a diet high in concentrate feeds may require more frequent dental prophylactic examinations and treatments to avoid the development of dental irregularities associated with smaller mandibular excursions during chewing.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher American Medical Association (AMA) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.2746/042516407X157792 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6513  
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Author Murphy, J.; Arkins, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Laterality and visuo-spatial ability in the equine: Functional measures of sport horse selection? Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication BSAP Occasional Publication Abbreviated Journal BSAP Occasional Publication  
  Volume 35 Issue Pages 159-170  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Laterality in any organism or species can be manifest as morphological, sensory and functional degrees of asymmetry such as hemispheric dominance, handedness or sidedness and other motor functional behaviours and as such is equally important in equitation. The influence of the horses' sex on both the direction and the degree of the laterality was explored within and between 4 experimental procedures in the 1st study. The findings showed that the direction, but not the degree of idiosyncratic motor preference in the horses was strongly sex-related. Male horses exhibited significantly more left lateralized responses and female horses exhibited significantly more right lateralized responses. Visuo-spatial ability is also likely to be important in the performance horse. In many species, moderate to large differences in visuo-spatial ability have been reported between the sexes, with superior visuo-spatial ability being reported in males of all species investigated to date. As no known studies had addressed visuo-spatial ability in the equine, the objective of the 2nd study, was to determine if visuo-spatial ability differed between male and female horses. The results produced the first behavioural demonstration of superior visuo-spatial ability in male horses, similar to that reported in other species. There is evidence to suggest that visuospatial ability and motor laterality are associated with cerebral hemispheric asymmetry and may be intrinsically linked. Brain development and laterality have also been associated with hair patterning, and, in a 3rd study we attempted to identify predictors of lateral bias in motor behaviour in horses. We investigated the relationship between the direction of facial hair whorl rotation and the incidence/direction of laterality in the horse. The findings suggest that direction of facial hair whorl rotation may be a useful indicator of lateralised motor behavioural preferences in the horse. We then attempted to establish if laterality was evident at birth in a 4th study, where we explored if neonatal foals exhibited lateralised patterns during and immediately post the birthing process that were correlated with their facial hair whorl patterns. The results showed a significant association between the sex of the foal and the choice of foreleg presented initially during 2nd stage parturition. Significantly more colt foals led with the left foreleg and significantly more filly foals led with the right foreleg than expected purely by random and the behaviour was correlated with facial hair whorl patterns. The findings also suggest that lateralisation in the horse is determined in utero as has also been shown in humans. Comparisons of wholly intact male and female horses are warranted as they might elucidate additional linkages between motor behaviour, visuo-spatial ability and brain organisation and development in the horse. Further research in this area could lead to more appropriate competition conditions (better fence design/construction on cross-country tracks) and so eliminate unnecessary levels of risk associated with many equestrian sports.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition 2018/02/27  
  ISSN 0263-967x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6512  
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Author Stecken, Paul url  isbn
openurl 
  Title Bemerkungen und Zusammenhänge Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher FNverlag der Deutschen Reiterlichen Vereinigung GmbH Place of Publication wARENDORF Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-88542-889-3 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6511  
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Author Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Haraldsson, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Significance of Group Composition for the Welfare of Pastured Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal Animals  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse welfare; aggression; allogrooming; pastured horses; Icelandic horse  
  Abstract We explore how herd composition and management factors correlate with frequencies of social interactions in horse groups. Since the welfare of horses correlates with low aggression levels and social contact opportunities, information of this kind is important. The data are a collection of records of social interactions of 426 Icelandic horses in 20 groups of at least eight horses. The complexities and limitations of the data prohibit useful statistical modelling so the results are presented descriptively. Interesting and informative patterns emerge which can be of use both in management and in future studies. Of special interest are the low levels of agonistic behaviours in breeding groups where one stallion was present. The horses were less agonistic when in groups with young foals and where group membership was stable. Unfamiliar yearlings in peer groups were especially aggressive. Allogrooming was most frequent in groups with relatively more young horses and in unstable and small groups. Interestingly, the horses allogroomed more if they had few preferred allogrooming partners. The findings show that composition (age/sex) and stability of groups are of great importance with respect to aggression levels and opportunities for establishing bonds.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title Animals  
  Series Volume 9 Series Issue 1 Edition  
  ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6510  
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Author Plumer, L.; Talvi, T.; Männil, P.; Saarma, U. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing the roles of wolves and dogs in livestock predation with suggestions for mitigating human-wildlife conflict and conservation of wolves Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Conservation Genetics Abbreviated Journal Conservat. Genet.  
  Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 665-672  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Predation on livestock is a cause of serious and long-lasting conflict between farmers and wildlife, promoting negative public attitudes and endangering conservation of large carnivores. However, while large carnivores, especially the grey wolf (Canis lupus), are often blamed for killing sheep and other farm animals, free-ranging dogs may also act as predators. To develop appropriate measures for livestock protection, reliable methods for identifying predator species are critical. Identification of predators from visual examination of livestock wounds can be ambiguous and genetic analysis is strongly preferable for accurate species determination. To estimate the proportion of wolves and dogs implicated in sheep predation, we developed a sensitive genetic assay to distinguish between wolves and domestic dogs. A total of 183 predator saliva samples collected from killed sheep in Estonia were analysed. The assay identified the predator species in 143 cases (78%). Sheep were most often killed by wolves (81%); however, predation by dogs was substantial (15%). We compared the molecular results with field observations conducted by local environmental officials and recorded some disagreement, with the latter underestimating the role of dogs. As predator saliva samples collected from prey are often of poor quality, we suggest using mitochondrial DNA as a primary tool to maximise the number of successfully analysed samples. We also suggest adopting forensic DNA analysis more widely in livestock predation assessments as a legislative measure since misidentification that is biased against wolves can be counterproductive for conservation by enhancing conflict with society and leading to increased culling and poaching.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1572-9737 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Plumer2018 Serial (down) 6509  
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Author Amodio, P.; Boeckle, M.; Schnell, A.K.; Ostojic, L.; Fiorito, G.; Clayton, N.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Grow Smart and Die Young: Why Did Cephalopods Evolve Intelligence? Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends. Ecol. Evol.  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Intelligence in large-brained vertebrates might have evolved through independent, yet similar processes based on comparable socioecological pressures and slow life histories. This convergent evolutionary route, however, cannot explain why cephalopods developed large brains and flexible behavioural repertoires: cephalopods have fast life histories and live in simple social environments. Here, we suggest that the loss of the external shell in cephalopods (i) caused a dramatic increase in predatory pressure, which in turn prevented the emergence of slow life histories, and (ii) allowed the exploitation of novel challenging niches, thus favouring the emergence of intelligence. By highlighting convergent and divergent aspects between cephalopods and large-brained vertebrates we illustrate how the evolution of intelligence might not be constrained to a single evolutionary route.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2018.10.010 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial (down) 6508  
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