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Author To be deleted openurl 
  Title The responses of horses in a discrimination problem Type Journal Article
  Year 1937 Publication J. Compar. Physiol. Psychol. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 23 Issue Pages 305-333  
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  Notes Cited By (since 1996): 2; Export Date: 24 October 2008 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ knut @ Serial 4585  
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Author Gaunitz, C.; Fages, A.; Hanghøj, K.; Albrechtsen, A.; Khan, N.; Schubert, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Owens, I.J.; Felkel, S.; Bignon-Lau, O.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Mittnik, A.; Mohaseb, A.F.; Davoudi, H.; Alquraishi, S.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Al-Rasheid, K.A.S.; Crubézy, E.; Benecke, N.; Olsen, S.; Brown, D.; Anthony, D.; Massy, K.; Pitulko, V.; Kasparov, A.; Brem, G.; Hofreiter, M.; Mukhtarova, G.; Baimukhanov, N.; Lõugas, L.; Onar, V.; Stockhammer, P.W.; Krause, J.; Boldgiv, B.; Undrakhbold, S.; Erdenebaatar, D.; Lepetz, S.; Mashkour, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wallner, B.; Merz, V.; Merz, I.; Zaibert, V.; Willerslev, E.; Librado, P.; Outram, A.K.; Orlando, L. doi  openurl
  Title Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
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  Abstract The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.  
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  Call Number (up) Admin @ knut @ Serial 6212  
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Author Kruska, D.C.T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Comparative quantitative investigations on brains of wild cavies (Cavia aperea) and guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). A contribution to size changes of CNS structures due to domestication Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mamm Biol  
  Volume 79 Issue 4 Pages 230-239  
  Keywords Domestication; Allometry; Brain structure volumes; Brain-behavior correlation  
  Abstract Intraspecific allometric calculations of the brain to body size relation revealed distinct differences between 127 (67; 60) ancestral wild cavies and 82 (37; 45) guinea pigs, their domesticated relatives. The dependency of both measures from one another remained the same in both animal groups but the brains of guinea pigs were by 14.22% smaller at any net body weight. Consistent with results in other species the domestication of Cavia aperea is also characterized by a decrease of brain size. Fresh tissue sizes of the five brain parts medulla oblongata, cerebellum, mesencephalon, diencephalon and telencephalon were determined for 6 cavies and 6 guinea pigs by the serial section method. Additionally the sizes of 16 endbrain structures and those of the optic tract, the lateral geniculate body and the cochlear nucleus were measured. Different decrease values resulted for all these structures concomitant with domestication as was calculated from the amount of total brain size decrease and average relative structure values in the wild as well as the domesticated brain. The size decrease of the entire telencephalon (-13.7%) was within the range of the mean overall reduction as similarly was the case for the total neocortex (-10.7%) whereas the total allocortex (-20.9%) clearly was more strongly affected. The size decrease of the olfactory bulb (-41.9%) was extreme and clearly higher than found for the secondary olfactory structures (around -11%). The primary nuclei of other sensory systems (vision, audition) were decreased to less extent (lateral geniculate: -18.1%; cochlear nucleus: -12.6%). Mass decreases of pure white matter parts were nearly twice as high in contrast to associated grey matter parts (neocortex white versus grey matter; tractus opticus versus lateral geniculate body). The relatively great decrease values found for the limbic structures hippocampus (-26.9%) and schizocortex (-25.9%) are especially notable since they are in good conformity with domestication effects in other mammalian species. The findings of this study are discussed with regard to results of similar investigations on wild and domesticated gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), the encephalization of the wild form, the special and species-specific mode and duration of domestication and in connection with certain behavioral changes as resulted from comparative investigations in ethology, socio-biology, endocrinology and general physiology.  
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  ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Admin @ knut @ Serial 6401  
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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6385  
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Author Custance, D.; Whiten, A.; Sambrook, T.; Galdikas, B. doi  openurl
  Title Testing for social learning in the “artificial fruit” processing of wildborn orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), Tanjung Puting, Indonesia Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 4 Issue 3 Pages 305-313  
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  Abstract Social learning about actions, objects and sequencing was investigated in a group of 14 wildborn orangutans (four adult females and ten 3- to 5-year-old juveniles). Human models showed alternative methods and sequences for dismantling an artificial fruit to groups of participants matched by gender and age. Each participant received three to six 2-min trials in which they were given access to the artificial fruit for manipulation. Independent coders, who were unaware of which method each participant had seen, gave confidence ratings and collected action frequencies from watching video recordings of the experimental trials. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of the coders' confidence ratings, the action frequencies or the sequence of manipulations. These negative results may at least partly reflect the immaturity of a large proportion of the participants. A positive correlation was found between age and the degree of matching to the method shown. Although none of the juveniles succeeded in opening the “fruit”, two out of the four adults did so and they also seemed to match more closely the sequence of elements touched over successive trials. The results are compared with similar data previously collected from human children, chimpanzees, gorillas, capuchin monkeys and common marmosets.  
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  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3370  
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Author Reader, S.M. doi  openurl
  Title Innovation and social learning: individual variation and brain evolution Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Animal Biology (formerly Netherlands Journal of Zoology) Abbreviated Journal Anim. Biol. Leiden.  
  Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 147-158  
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  Abstract This paper reviews behavioural, neurological and cognitive correlates of innovation at the individual, population and species level, focusing on birds and primates. Innovation, new or modified learned behaviour not previously found in the population, is the first stage in many instances of cultural transmission and may play an important role in the lives of animals with generalist or opportunistic lifestyles. Within-species, innovation is associated with low neophobia, high neophilia, and with high social learning propensities. Indices of innovatory propensities can be calculated for taxonomic groups by counting the frequency of reports of innovation in published literature. These innovation rate data provide a useful comparative measure for studies of behavioural flexibility and cognition. Innovation rate is positively correlated with the relative size of association areas in the brain, namely the hyperstriatum ventrale and neostriatum in birds, and the neocortex and striatum in primates. Innovation rate is also positively correlated with the reported variety of tool use, as well as interspecific differences in learning. Current evidence thus suggests similar patterns of cognitive evolution in primates and birds.  
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  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3395  
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Author Rubin, L.; Oppegard, C.; Hindz, H.F. url  doi
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  Title The effect of varying the temporal distribution of conditioning trials on equine learning behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 1980 Publication Journal of Animal Science Abbreviated Journal J. Anim Sci.  
  Volume 50 Issue 6 Pages 1184-1187  
  Keywords Animals; Conditioning (Psychology); *Horses; *Learning  
  Abstract Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of varying the temporal distrbution of conditioning sessions on equine learning behavior. In the first experiment, 15 ponies were trained to clear a small hurdle in response to a buzzer in order to avoid a mild electric shock. Three treatments were used. One group received 10 learning trials daily, seven times a week; one group was trained in the same fashion two times a week and one group was trained once a week. The animals conditioned only once a week achieved a high level of performance in significantly fewer sessions than the ones conditioned seven times a week, although elapsed time from start of training to completion was two to three times greater for the former group. The twice-a-week group learned at an intermediate rate. In the second experiment, the ponies were rearranged into three new groups. They were taught to move backward a specific distance in response to a visual cue in order to avoid an electric shock. Again, one group was trained seven times a week, one group was trained two times and one group was trained once a week. As in the first experiment, the animals trained once a week achieved the learning criteria in significantly fewer sessions than those trained seven times a week, but, as in trial 1, elapsed time from start to finish was greater for them. The two times-a-week group learned at a rate in-between the rates of the other two groups.  
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  ISSN 0021-8812 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:7400060 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3558  
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Author Gardner, P. doi  openurl
  Title The responses of horses in a discrimination problem Type Journal Article
  Year 1937 Publication Journal-of-Comparative-Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol  
  Volume 23 Issue Pages 305-333  
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  Abstract 62 horses were trained to obtain food from the one of three boxes which was covered with a black cloth. The position of the box varied from trial to trial in a random order. Learning was apparently in terms of vision, rather than smell. Many errors were due to the line of direction of the horse's movement as it entered the experimental situation. For all animals the learning curve dropped rapidly during the first few trials. There was slightly more rapid learning in younger horses than in older ones. No sex differences were apparent. Percherons made fewer errors than Belgians. Draft horses showed a slight superiority over military and farm horses. The statistical reliability of these differences is not reported. Good retention was evidenced after a period of several months. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)  
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  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3613  
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Author McCall, C.A.; Salters, M.A.; Simpson, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationship between number of conditioning trials per training session and avoidance learning in horses Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 36 Issue 4 Pages 291-299  
  Keywords Horse; Learning; Avoidance conditioning  
  Abstract Sixteen horses were used to determine if number of trials given per training session (5, 10, 15 or 20) affected learning performance in an avoidance conditioning task. The horse had to move from one side of a test pen to the other during an auditory cue presentation to avoid aversive stimulation. A pen 8 mx3.6 m, divided into two equal sections by a 13-cm diameter plastic pipe lying on the ground, was used as the test pen. Painted plywood panels were fastened to the fence in half the pen to help horses distinguish visually between the two parts. A 10-s auditory cue was used as a signal for horses to move from one side of the test pen to the other. A 20-s intertrial interval was used. Training sessions were conducted every third day. Each trial was recorded as an avoidance (the horse completed the task during auditory cue presentation and avoided aversive stimulus) or an error (the horse received aversive stimulus). After completing ten consecutive avoidances (criterion), the horse was removed from the study. Numbers of training sessions, trials, avoidances and errors until reaching criterion were recorded for each horse. Horses varied greatly within these variables with ranges of 3-18 sessions, 37-121 trials, 20-68 avoidances and 17-53 errors to criterion. No differences were detected (P>0.05) in the number of conditioning trials per training session (treatment) for the mean number of trials, avoidances or errors to criterion. Number of training sessions to criterion differed (P<0.01) among treatments, indicating that an optimum number of learning trials per training session might exist. Mean sessions to criterion for horses receiving 5, 10, 15 and 20 trials per session were 15.1+/-1.3, 5.8+/-1.1, 5.3+/-1.1 and 4.6+/-1.1, respectively. Regression analysis indicated that 16.2 trials per training session would minimize number of sessions to criterion. Although it is widely assumed that learning efficiency in horses is decreased when intense activity is concentrated into a small number of sessions, these results indicate that moderate repetition of training activities is needed for efficient learning.  
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  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3686  
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Author Hagen, S.J.; Eaton, W.A. doi  openurl
  Title Two-state expansion and collapse of a polypeptide Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol  
  Volume 301 Issue 4 Pages 1019-1027  
  Keywords Animals; Computer Simulation; Cytochrome c Group/*chemistry/*metabolism; Horses; Kinetics; Lasers; Models, Chemical; Peptides/*chemistry/*metabolism; Protein Conformation; Protein Denaturation; *Protein Folding; Spectrometry, Fluorescence; Temperature; Thermodynamics  
  Abstract The initial phase of folding for many proteins is presumed to be the collapse of the polypeptide chain from expanded to compact, but still denatured, conformations. Theory and simulations suggest that this collapse may be a two-state transition, characterized by barrier-crossing kinetics, while the collapse of homopolymers is continuous and multi-phasic. We have used a laser temperature-jump with fluorescence spectroscopy to measure the complete time-course of the collapse of denatured cytochrome c with nanosecond time resolution. We find the process to be exponential in time and thermally activated, with an apparent activation energy approximately 9 k(B)T (after correction for solvent viscosity). These results indicate that polypeptide collapse is kinetically a two-state transition. Because of the observed free energy barrier, the time scale of polypeptide collapse is dramatically slower than is predicted by Langevin models for homopolymer collapse.  
  Address Laboratory of Chemical Physics, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Building 5, Bethesda, MD, 20892-0520, USA  
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  ISSN 0022-2836 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:10966803 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3790  
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