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Author (up) Atwill, E.R.; Mohammed, H.O.; Lopez, J.W.
Title Evaluation of travel and use as a risk factor for seropositivity to Ehrlichia risticii in horses of New York state Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication American Journal of Veterinary Research Abbreviated Journal Am J Vet Res
Volume 57 Issue 3 Pages 272-277
Keywords Animals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Ehrlichiosis/epidemiology/*veterinary; Female; *Horse Diseases; Horses; Male; New York/epidemiology; Probability; Random Allocation; Risk Factors; *Travel
Abstract OBJECTIVES--To determine whether mean annual frequency and destination of equine travel was associated with exposure to Ehrlichia risticii and whether these associations were modified by horses' place of residence. DESIGN--Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE POPULATION--511 equine operations containing 2,587 horses were visited in New York state from a target population of 39,000 operations. PROCEDURE--Each horse was tested for serum antibodies against E risticii, using indirect fluorescent antibody. Information on the horse's travel history, farm's management practices, and surrounding ecology was obtained by personal interview and resource maps. Statistical analyses were performed on 2 cohorts of animals: all horses enrolled in the study and horses born on the property or that resided at least 4 years on the farm. Three county-based risk regions (RR) were identified by use of cluster analysis. RESULTS--Mean seroprevalence for each of the 3 RR was 2.4 (low risk), 8.5 (moderate risk), and 18.5% (high risk) for cohort 1 and 2.5, 8.0, and 18.4% for cohort 2. Among cohorts 1 and 2, pleasure riding and breeding trips were associated with exposure to E risticii, but horse residence (low, moderate, or high RR) was an effect modifier for these associations. Among cohort 1 and stratifying the analysis according to the RR for the travel destination, trail riding at low RR and trail riding at high RR were associated with exposure. Among cohort 2 and stratifying the analysis according to the RR for the travel destination, breeding trips were associated with exposure, and strong effect modification was present for horse residence (low, moderate, or high RR). CONCLUSIONS--Only certain types of travel to specific RR were associated with higher risk of exposure to E risticii. In many instances, travel was not associated, or was associated, with a reduced risk of exposure.
Address Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0002-9645 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8669754 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2658
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Author (up) Aurich, J.; Wulf, M.; Ille, N.; Erber, R.; von Lewinski, M.; Palme, R.; Aurich, C.
Title Effects of season, age, sex and housing on salivary cortisol concentrations in horses Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Domestic Animal Endocrinology Abbreviated Journal Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords horse; cortisol; diurnal rhythm; reproduction; housing
Abstract Abstract Analysis of salivary cortisol is increasingly used to assess stress responses in horses. Since spontaneous or experimentally induced increases in cortisol concentrations are often relatively small for stress studies proper controls are needed. This requires an understanding of factors affecting salivary cortisol over longer times. In this study, we have analysed salivary cortisol concentration over 6 mo in horses (n = 94) differing in age, sex, reproductive state and housing. Salivary cortisol followed a diurnal rhythm with highest concentrations in the morning and a decrease throughout the day (P < 0.001). This rhythm was disrupted in individual groups on individual days; however, alterations remained within the range of diurnal changes. Comparison between months showed highest cortisol concentrations in December (P < 0.001). Cortisol concentrations increased in breeding stallions during the breeding season (P < 0.001). No differences in salivary cortisol concentrations between non-pregnant mares with and without a corpus luteum existed. In stallions, mean daily salivary cortisol and plasma testosterone concentration were weakly correlated (r = 0.251, P < 0.01). No differences in salivary cortisol between female and male young horses and no consistent differences between horses of different age existed. Group housing and individual stabling did not affect salivary cortisol. In conclusion, salivary cortisol concentrations in horses follow a diurnal rhythm and are increased in active breeding sires. Time of the day and reproductive state of the horses are thus important for experiments that include analysis of cortisol in saliva.
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ISSN 0739-7240 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5847
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Author (up) Austin, N.P.; Rogers, L.J.
Title Lateralization of agonistic and vigilance responses in Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 151 Issue Pages 43-50
Keywords Behavioural lateralization: Eye preference; Limb preference; Aggression; Vigilance; Reactivity; Przewalski horses
Abstract tEye and limb preferences were scored in the closest undomesticated relative of Equuscaballus using the same methods as used previously to study laterality in feral horses.Observations were made of 33 Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) (male N = 20,female N = 13) living under natural social conditions on a large reserve in France. Signifi-cant left-eye/side biases were found in agonistic interactions within harem bands (M ± SEbias to left 58% ± 0.01 for threats, P < 0.001; 68% ± 0.05 for attacks; P < 0.001) and in stallionfights (threats, 52% ± 0.01 left, P < 0.001; attacks, 63% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001): as many as 80%of the horses were significantly lateralized in attack responses within harem bands. Lat-erality of vigilance was measured as lifting up the head from grazing and turning it to theleft or right side: a directional bias to the left was found (M ± SE 53% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001).Side bias in reactivity was calculated as the percent of head lifts above the level of thewithers on the left or right side and this was also left side biased (M ± SE 73% ± 0.03 left,P < 0.001). These results indicate right-hemisphere specialization for control of aggressionand responses to novelty. The left bias in attack scores within harem bands was strongerin males than females (P = 0.024) and in immature than adult horses (P = 0.032). Immaturehorses were also more strongly lateralized than adults in vigilance scores (P = 0.022), whichmay suggest that experience reduces these side biases. Our results show that Przewalskihorses exhibit left eye preferences, as do feral horses, and do so even more strongly thanferal horses. Considering feral and Przewalski horses together, we deduce that ancestralhorses had similar lateral biases. Also similar to feral horses, the Przewalski horses showedno significant forelimb preference at the group level or in the majority of horses at theindividual level, confirming the hypothesis that previously reported limb preferences indomestic breeds are entrained or generated by breed-specific selection.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5768
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Author (up) Austin, N.P.; Rogers, L.J.
Title Limb preferences and lateralization of aggression, reactivity and vigilance in feral horses, Equus caballus Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 83 Issue 1 Pages 239-247
Keywords aggression; behavioural asymmetry; Equus caballus; eye preference; feral horse; limb preference; reactivity; side bias
Abstract Observational field studies were conducted on two remote populations of feral horses in Australia to determine whether lateralization is a characteristic of Equus caballus as a species or results from handling by humans. Group 1 had been feral for two to five generations and Group 2 for 10–20 generations. In both groups, left-side biases were present during agonistic interactions and in reactivity and vigilance. Therefore, as in other vertebrates, the right hemisphere appears to be specialized to control agonistic behaviour and responses to potential threats. The leftwards bias was stronger in measures of behaviour involving more aggression and reactivity. Preferences to place one forelimb in front of the other during grazing were also determined. No population bias of forelimb preference was found, suggesting that such limb preferences present in domestic horses may be entrained. Since stronger individual limb preferences were found in immature than in adult feral horses, limb preference may be modified by maturation or experience in the natural habitat. Stronger limb preference was associated significantly with elevated attention to the environment but only in younger feral horses. No sex differences in lateralization were found. The findings are evidence that horses show visual lateralization, as in other vertebrates, not dependent on handling by humans. Limb preference during grazing, by contrast, does appear to depend on experience.
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ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5651
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Author (up) Autio, E.; Heiskanen, M.-L.
Title Foal behaviour in a loose housing/paddock environment during winter Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 91 Issue 3-4 Pages 277-288
Keywords Foal behaviour; Horse; Loose house; Time budget; Weather
Abstract The aim of this study was to establish some basic facts about weanling horse (Equus caballus) behaviour in a loose housing/paddock environment during winter. The behaviour of 10 foals (seven American Standardbred and three Finnish cold-blooded foals) was observed in a cold loose housing/paddock environment from December 2002 to March 2003. The time budget, circadian rhythm and effect of weather conditions on behaviour were examined. The foals were observed for a total of 23 24-h periods by video recording. The method used was instantaneous sampling (), where the locations of foals were noted at every 15 min along with the behaviour performed at that time. Temperature, humidity and wind speed were recorded three times a day. The foals spent 43.2 +/- 6.6% of the time in the sleeping hall (an insulated building with a deep-litter bed), 51.4 +/- 5.8% in the open paddock and 5.2 +/- 2.7% in the shelter (a two-sided, roofed entrance shelter in front of the sleeping hall). The time spent outdoors was greatest between the hours of 08:00 and 20:00, but the foals spent some time outdoors also at night. They spent most of the day eating hay (27.6 +/- 3.0%) (offered ad libitum), standing (25.5 +/- 2.8%) and resting (32.1 +/- 2.4%). The proportion of locomotive behaviour patterns was 5% of the observations. The foals in this study were able to perform species-specific behaviour patterns (resting, eating, being active) and to follow the natural circadian rhythm of these patterns. The behaviour of the foals did not change much as the temperature dropped from 0 to -20 [degree sign]C. The time spent in the sleeping hall did not increase greatly, nor the time spent eating, resting or lying close to each other (huddling). On the basis of their behaviour, the weanling horses did not seem to suffer from the cold environment.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3632
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Author (up) Aviad, A.D.; Houpt, J.B.
Title The molecular weight of therapeutic hyaluronan (sodium hyaluronate): how significant is it? Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication The Journal of rheumatology Abbreviated Journal J Rheumatol
Volume 21 Issue 2 Pages 297-301
Keywords Animals; Horse Diseases/drug therapy; Horses; Humans; Hyaluronic Acid/*chemistry/*therapeutic use; Joint Diseases/*drug therapy/veterinary; Molecular Weight; Osteoarthritis/drug therapy/veterinary; Synovial Fluid/drug effects/physiology; Viscosity
Abstract Various molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) preparations have been injected into joints for the treatment of human and equine osteoarthritis. A therapeutic advantage has been claimed for commercial products with a molecular weight in the range found in normal synovial fluid (SF), compared to lower molecular weight products. But a correlation between molecular weight and efficacy is not borne out by an analysis of the available literature on clinical results. SF viscosity, HA concentration, HA molecular weight and rate of synthesis in joint disease. It is proposed that the beneficial effect of injected HA in joint disease may be due to pharmacological rather than to physical properties.
Address Rheumatic Disease Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, ON, Canada
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ISSN 0315-162X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8182640 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 35
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Author (up) Ayala, I.; Martos, N.F.; Silvan, G.; Gutierrez-Panizo, C.; Clavel, J.G.; Illera, J.C.
Title Cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline serum concentrations in relation to disease and stress in the horse Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Research in Veterinary Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 93 Issue 1 Pages 103-107
Keywords Horse; Disease; Cortisol; Acth; Serotonin; Catecholamines; Stress
Abstract No detailed comparative data are available on the hormonal parameters of horses suffering from a number of diseases. The aim of our study was to measure concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serotonin, adrenaline and noradrenaline in horses with various diseases and following surgery, to assess the response of the HPA axis and adrenal medulla. Blood samples were obtained from six groups of horses comprising a total of 119 animals as follows: laminitis, acute abdominal syndrome (AAS), castration surgery, acute diseases, chronic diseases and healthy controls. Serum hormonal concentrations were determined for each group for comparison. Statistically significant differences between all groups and controls were found for cortisol, ACTH (except for castration), serotonin and adrenaline concentrations but only in horses with laminitis and AAS for noradrenaline. No statistically significant differences were found between males and females. The largest changes in the pituitary–adrenal axis activity occurred mainly in acute diseases, laminitis and in the AAS group.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0034-5288 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5935
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Author (up) Ayres, C.M.; Davey, L.M.; German, W.J.
Title Cerebral Hydatidosis. Clinical Case Report With A Review Of Pathogenesis Type Journal Article
Year 1963 Publication Journal of Neurosurgery Abbreviated Journal J Neurosurg
Volume 20 Issue Pages 371-377
Keywords *Alaska; *Arctic Regions; *Brain Diseases; *Cattle; *Child; *Dogs; *Echinococcosis; *Ecology; *Epidemiology; *Heart Diseases; *Horses; *Infant; *Inuits; *Occipital Lobe; *Sheep; *Alaska; *Arctic Regions; *Brain Diseases; *Cattle; *Child; *Dogs; *Echinococcosis; *Ecology; *Epidemiology; *Eskimos; *Heart Diseases; *Horses; *Infant; *Occipital Lobe; *Review; *Sheep
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0022-3085 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:14186052 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2748
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Author (up) Bachmann, I.; Audige, L.; Stauffacher, M.
Title Risk factors associated with behavioural disorders of crib-biting, weaving and box-walking in Swiss horses Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J
Volume 35 Issue 2 Pages 158-163
Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology); Data Collection; Female; Horse Diseases/epidemiology/*etiology/prevention & control; Horses; *Housing, Animal; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/etiology/prevention & control/*veterinary; Prevalence; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Stereotyped Behavior; Switzerland/epidemiology
Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Studies on the prevalence of behavioural disorders in horses and on associated risk factors have revealed inconsistent results. There are many studies on the neuropharmacological, surgical or mechanical therapy of stereotypies, but little is known about their causation. OBJECTIVES: To explore risk factors associated with the occurrence of behavioural disorders in horses. METHODS: A sample of horse owners, selected randomly and representative for Switzerland, was contacted in a postal survey. Answers were provided for 622 stables (response rate 35.2%). Individual data of 2,341 horses were examined with path analysis (multivariable linear and logistic regression), and adjustment made for possible confounding effects due to age and breed. RESULTS: Out of 60 possible risk factors, 11 were associated with the outcome at the univariable level (null-hypothesis path model) and 3 factors remained after the backward logistic regression procedure. Mature Warmbloods and Thoroughbreds, assessed by the owners to be reactive, fed 4 times a day and without daily pasture, had increased odds of displaying crib-biting, weaving and box-walking. Furthermore, indirect associations of 5 factors with the outcome were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The final logistic regression model of risk factors leads to the hypotheses that causal prevention of stereotypic behaviours should be based upon housing and management conditions which allow tactile contact with other horses (e.g. mutual grooming), daily free movement (paddock or pasture), as well as the provision of high amounts of roughage but of little or no concentrates. POTENTIAL CLINICAL RELEVANCE: It is one of the aims of population medicine to prevent the development of behavioural disorders. Further research is needed to test the concluding hypotheses in experimental studies or to verify them in the context of similar observational studies.
Address Institute of Animal Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), LFW B55. 1, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland
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ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12638792 Approved no
Call Number Serial 1907
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Author (up) Bachmann, I.; Bernasconi, P.; Herrmann, R.; Weishaupt, M.A.; Stauffacher, M.
Title Behavioural and physiological responses to an acute stressor in crib-biting and control horses Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.
Volume 82 Issue 4 Pages 297-311
Keywords Horse welfare; Stereotypies; Crib-biting; Pituitary-adrenocortical axis; Sympatho-adrenomedullar axis; Stress response; Stress sensibility
Abstract The responses of eleven pairs of crib-biting and non-crib-biting horses (controls) to an arousal-inducing stimulus were studied. Video-observation of the horses revealed that crib-biting horses spent between 10.4 and 64.7% of their stabling time performing the stereotypy. During the first 2 days of an experimental period, the horses were conditioned to receive food from a special bucket. On the third day the food bucket was presented, but the horses were not allowed to feed. Arousal behaviour and crib-biting intensity as well as plasma cortisol concentration, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded at rest, and during and after presentation of the food stimulus. The stimulus induced a significant increase of HR and arousal behaviour in crib-biters and in controls, whereas the crib-biting frequency decreased. Power spectral analysis of the HRV revealed significant differences between crib-biters and controls at rest: crib-biters had a lower vagal tone (high frequency component, HF) and a higher sympathetic tone (low frequency component, LF) than controls. The lower basal parasympathetic activity might be an indication why crib-biting horses, in contrast to the controls, showed neither a significant decrease of the HF component during presentation of the food stimulus nor an increase of the HF component after presentation. Thus, there might be differences in the tuning of the autonomous nervous system and of the stress reactivity in crib-biting and in control horses. The results suggest that the crib-biting horses are more stress sensitive and physiologically and psychologically less flexible than the control horses.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3614
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