|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Hinchcliff, K.W.; Kohn, C.W.; Geor, R.; McCutcheon, L.J.; Foreman, J.; Andrews, F.M.; Allen, A.K.; White, S.L.; Williamson, L.H.; Maykuth, P.L.
Title Acid:base and serum biochemistry changes in horses competing at a modified 1 Star 3-day-event Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl
Volume Issue 20 Pages 105-110
Keywords *Acid-Base Equilibrium; Animals; Blood Proteins/analysis; Body Water/metabolism; Carbon Dioxide/blood; Electrolytes/*blood; Female; Hematocrit/veterinary; Homeostasis; Horses/*blood/physiology; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Male; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*physiology
Abstract We examined the effects of participation in each of 3 modifications of Day 2 of a 3-day-event on blood and serum variables indicative of hydration, acid:base status and electrolyte homeostasis of horses. Three groups of horses – 8 European (E) horses and 2 groups each of 9 North American horses performed identical Days 1 (dressage) and 3 (stadium jumping) of a 3-day-event. E horses and one group of the North American horses (TD) performed modifications of Day 2 of a 1 Star 3-day-event and the other group of North American horses (HT) performed a Horse Trial on Day 2. Jugular venous blood was collected from each horse on the morning of Day 2 before any warm-up activity, between 4 min 55 s and 5 min 15 s after Phase D and the following morning. Eight E horses, 5 TD horses and 8 HT horses completed the trials. There were few significant differences in acid:base or serum biochemistry variables detected among horses performing either 2 variations of the Speed and Endurance day of a 1 Star 3-day-event, or a conventional Horse Trial. Failure to detect differences among groups may have been related to the low statistical power associated with the small number of horses, especially in the TD group, variation in quality of horses among groups and the different times of the day at which the E horses competed. Differences detected among time points were usually common to all groups and demonstrated metabolic acidosis with a compensatory respiratory alkalosis, a reduction in total body water and cation content, and hypocalcaemia. Importantly, horses of all groups did not replenish cation, chloride, and calcium deficits after 14-18 h of recovery.
Address Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210-1089, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:8933092 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3740
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Laut, J.E.; Houpt, K.A.; Hintz, H.F.; Houpt, T.R.
Title The effects of caloric dilution on meal patterns and food intake of ponies Type Journal Article
Year 1985 Publication Physiology & behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol. Behav.
Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 549-554
Keywords Animals; Body Weight; *Diet; Energy Intake; *Feeding Behavior; Homeostasis; Horses/*physiology; Male
Abstract In order to determine if horses will increase their intake in response to caloric dilution, four pony geldings were fed ad lib a mixed grain diet either undiluted (3.4 Mcal/kg of digestible energy) or diluted (wt/wt) with 25% sawdust (2.6 Mcal/kg) or with 50% sawdust (1.7 Mcal/kg). The mean daily caloric intake was 17,457 kcal (3.4 Mcal diet), 17,546 kcal (2.6 Mcal diet) and 12,844 kcal (1.7 Mcal). The mean time spent eating was 246 (3.4 Mcal), 351 (2.6 Mcal), and 408 (1.7 Mcal) minutes/day. Meal size increased and meal frequency decreased with increasing dilution. The median long survivorships of intermeal intervals were 6.4 min (3.4 Mcal), 3.95 min (2.6 Mcal) and 4.91 min (1.7 Mcal). Ponies responded to caloric dilution by increasing the volume of intake to maintain caloric intake when the diet had 25% diluent. When the diet was diluted by 50%, intake was increased, but not at a rate adequate to maintain caloric intake. However, the ponies were able to maintain body weight.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:4070429 Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 52
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Romero, L.M.; Dickens, M.J.; Cyr, N.E.
Title The reactive scope model A new model integrating homeostasis, allostasis, and stress Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Hormones and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Horm. Behav.
Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 375-389
Keywords Stress; Allostasis; Glucocorticoids; Fight-or-flight; Homeostasis
Abstract Allostasis, the concept of maintaining stability through change, has been proposed as a term and a model to replace the ambiguous term of stress, the concept of adequately or inadequately coping with threatening or unpredictable environmental stimuli. However, both the term allostasis and its underlying model have generated criticism. Here we propose the Reactive Scope Model, an alternate graphical model that builds on the strengths of allostasis and traditional concepts of stress yet addresses many of the criticisms. The basic model proposes divergent effects in four ranges for the concentrations or levels of various physiological mediators involved in responding to stress. (1) Predictive Homeostasis is the range encompassing circadian and seasonal variation the concentrations/levels needed to respond to predictable environmental changes. (2) Reactive Homeostasis is the range of the mediator needed to respond to unpredictable or threatening environmental changes. Together, Predictive and Reactive Homeostasis comprise the normal reactive scope of the mediator for that individual. Concentrations/levels above the Reactive Homeostasis range is (3) Homeostatic Overload, and concentrations/levels below the Predictive Homeostasis range is (4) Homeostatic Failure. These two ranges represent concentrations/levels with pathological effects and are not compatible with long-term (Homeostatic Overload) or short-term (Homeostatic Failure) health. Wear and tear is the concept that there is a cost to maintaining physiological systems in the Reactive Homeostasis range, so that over time these systems gradually lose their ability to counteract threatening and unpredictable stimuli. Wear and tear can be modeled by a decrease in the threshold between Reactive Homeostasis and Homeostatic Overload, i.e. a decrease in reactive scope. This basic model can then be modified by altering the threshold between Reactive Homeostasis and Homeostatic Overload to help understand how an individual's response to environmental stressors can differ depending upon factors such as prior stressors, dominance status, and early life experience. We illustrate the benefits of the Reactive Scope Model and contrast it with the traditional model and with allostasis in the context of chronic malnutrition, changes in social status, and changes in stress responses due to early life experiences. The Reactive Scope Model, as an extension of allostasis, should be useful to both biomedical researchers studying laboratory animals and humans, as well as ecologists studying stress in free-living animals.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0018-506x ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5583
Permanent link to this record