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Author A. Lanata; A. Guidi; G. Valenza; P. Baragli; E. P. Scilingo doi  openurl
  Title Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) Abbreviated Journal 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Volume Issue Pages 2696-2699  
  Keywords electrocardiography; medical signal processing; signal classification; time series; Dtw; Hrv; Mpc; Msc; complex biological systems; dynamic time warping; grooming; heart rate variability time series; heartbeat dynamics; human-horse dynamic interaction; magnitude squared coherence; magnitude-phase coupling; mean phase coherence; nearest mean classifier; quantitative heartbeat coupling; real human-animal interaction; time duration; visual-olfactory interaction; Coherence; Couplings; Electrocardiography; Heart rate variability; Horses; Protocols; Time series analysis  
  Abstract Abstractó We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent

statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (E  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1557-170x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6175  
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Author Aerts, J.-M.; Gebruers, F.; Van Camp, E.; Berckmans, D. doi  openurl
  Title Controlling horse heart rate as a basis for training improvement Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Computers and Electronics in Agriculture Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 64 Issue 1 Pages 78-84  
  Keywords Heart rate; Horse; Model predictive control; Transfer function model  
  Abstract Equine training methods, and consequently, performance times have improved little since the last decades. With advances in measuring signals on-line by means of several new technologies and analytical procedures, and processing these signals immediately with strong and compact processors, it may be possible to develop new training methods. In this research, the objective was to explore the possibilities of using modern model-based algorithms to control the heart rate of horses (bpm) on-line by means of the control input running speed (km/h). Forty-five experiments with five horses and four riders were carried out to generate measurements of physiological status during running. The dynamical characteristics of each horse were quantified using linear discrete transfer function models. The dynamic response of heart rate to step changes in running speed were accurately described. In 90% of the cases, a first-order model gave the best fit. For 69% of the models, the r2 was higher than 0.90 and for 34% of the models, the r2 was even higher than 0.95. In a next step, the model-based algorithm was evaluated by controlling cardiac responses of two horses (horses 2 and 4) to a pre-defined trajectory. The model parameters were kept constant. On average, the error between the defined target trajectory in heart rate and the actual controlled heart rate ranged between 0.2 and 1.4 bpm for the whole target heart rate trajectory. During the steady-state part of the trajectory the average error was maximum 1.1 bpm. In the transient from one steady-state heart rate to another level, the error could increase on average up to 5 bpm. In the future, the combination of on-line measured bioresponses with real-time analysis can be used for adjusting the work load of the horse, during training, directly to the immediate needs of horse (welfare) and trainer (performance).  
  Address Division Measure, Model and Manage Bioresponses (M3-BIORES), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 30, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4555  
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Author Arnold, W.; Ruf, T.; Kuntz, R. doi  openurl
  Title Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication The Journal of experimental biology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Biol  
  Volume 209 Issue Pt 22 Pages 4566-4573  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild/*physiology; Body Temperature; Body Temperature Regulation; Eating; *Energy Metabolism; Female; Heart Rate; Horses/*physiology; Male; Motor Activity; Pregnancy; Reproduction; *Seasons  
  Abstract Many large mammals show pronounced seasonal fluctuations of metabolic rate (MR). It has been argued, based on studies in ruminants, that this variation merely results from different levels of locomotor activity (LA), and heat increment of feeding (HI). However, a recent study in red deer (Cervus elaphus) identified a previously unknown mechanism in ungulates--nocturnal hypometabolism--that contributed significantly to reduced energy expenditure, mainly during late winter. The relative contribution of these different mechanisms to seasonal adjustments of MR is still unknown, however. Therefore, in the study presented here we quantified for the first time the independent contribution of thermoregulation, LA and HI to heart rate (f(H)) as a measure of MR in a free-roaming large ungulate, the Przewalski horse or Takhi (Equus ferus przewalskii Poljakow). f(H) varied periodically throughout the year with a twofold increase from a mean of 44 beats min(-1) during December and January to a spring peak of 89 beats min(-1) at the beginning of May. LA increased from 23% per day during December and January to a mean level of 53% per day during May, and declined again thereafter. Daily mean subcutaneous body temperature (T(s)) declined continuously during winter and reached a nadir at the beginning of April (annual range was 5.8 degrees C), well after the annual low of air temperature and LA. Lower T(s) during winter contributed considerably to the reduction in f(H). In addition to thermoregulation, f(H) was affected by reproduction, LA, HI and unexplained seasonal variation, presumably reflecting to some degree changes in organ mass. The observed phase relations of seasonal changes indicate that energy expenditure was not a consequence of energy uptake but is under endogenous control, preparing the organism well in advance of seasonal energetic demands.  
  Address Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160 Vienna, Austria. walter.arnold@vu-wien.ac.at  
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  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17079726 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1782  
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Author Aureli, F.; Preston, S.D.; de Waal, F.B. openurl 
  Title Heart rate responses to social interactions in free-moving rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983) Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol  
  Volume 113 Issue 1 Pages 59-65  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Female; Grooming/physiology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Macaca mulatta/*physiology; Male; Movement/*physiology; Pilot Projects; *Social Behavior  
  Abstract Heart rate telemetry was explored as a means to access animal emotion during social interactions under naturalistic conditions. Heart rates of 2 middle-ranking adult females living in a large group of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were recorded along with their behavior. Heart rate changes during 2 types of interactions were investigated, while controlling for the effects of posture and activity. The risk of aggression associated with the approach of a dominant individual was expected to provoke anxiety in the approachee. This prediction was supported by the heart rate increase after such an approach. No increase was found when the approacher was a kin or a subordinate individual. The tension-reduction function of allogrooming was also supported. Heart rate decelerated faster during the receipt of grooming than in matched control periods.  
  Address Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA. aureli@rmy.emory.edu  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10098269 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 197  
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Author Carroll, G.L.; Matthews, N.S.; Hartsfield, S.M.; Slater, M.R.; Champney, T.H.; Erickson, S.W. openurl 
  Title The effect of detomidine and its antagonism with tolazoline on stress-related hormones, metabolites, physiologic responses, and behavior in awake ponies Type Journal Article
  Year 1997 Publication Veterinary surgery : VS : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons Abbreviated Journal Vet Surg  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Animals; Behavior, Animal/drug effects/physiology; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Blood Pressure/drug effects/physiology; Consciousness/physiology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Drug Interactions; Epinephrine/blood; Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood; Female; Heart Rate/drug effects/physiology; Horse Diseases/metabolism/physiopathology/psychology; Horses/blood/metabolism/*physiology; Hydrocortisone/blood; Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Imidazoles/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Injections, Intravenous; Male; Norepinephrine/blood; Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha/drug effects/*physiology; Stress/metabolism/physiopathology/veterinary; Time Factors; Tolazoline/administration & dosage/*pharmacology  
  Abstract Six ponies were used to investigate the effect of tolazoline antagonism of detomidine on physiological responses, behavior, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, glucose, and free fatty acids in awake ponies. Each pony had a catheter inserted into a jugular vein 1 hour before beginning the study. Awake ponies were administered detomidine (0.04 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.]) followed 20 minutes later by either tolazoline (4.0 mg/kg i.v.) or saline. Blood samples were drawn from the catheter 5 minutes before detomidine administration (baseline), 5 minutes after detomidine administration, 20 minutes before detomidine administration which was immediately before the administration of tolazoline or saline (time [T] = 0), and at 5, 30, and 60 minutes after injections of tolazoline or saline (T = 5, 30, and 60 minutes, respectively). Compared with heart rate at T = 0, tolazoline antagonism increased heart rate 45% at 5 minutes. There was no difference in heart rate between treatments at 30 minutes. Blood pressure remained stable after tolazoline, while it decreased over time after saline. Compared with concentrations at T = 0, tolazoline antagonism of detomidine in awake ponies resulted in a 55% increase in cortisol at 30 minutes and a 52% increase in glucose at 5 minutes. The change in free fatty acids was different for tolazoline and saline over time. Free fatty acids decreased after detomidine administration. Free fatty acids did not change after saline administration. After tolazoline administration, free fatty acids increased transiently. Tolazoline tended to decrease sedation and analgesia at 15 and 60 minutes postantagonism. Antagonism of detomidine-induced physiological and behavioral effects with tolazoline in awake ponies that were not experiencing pain appears to precipitate a stress response as measured by cortisol, glucose, and free fatty acids. If antagonism of an alpha-agonist is contemplated, the potential effect on hormones and metabolites should be considered.  
  Address Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0161-3499 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:9123816 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 96  
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Author Cattell, R.B.; Korth, B. openurl 
  Title The isolation of temperament dimensions in dogs Type Journal Article
  Year 1973 Publication Behavioral Biology Abbreviated Journal Behav Biol  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 15-30  
  Keywords Aggression; Animals; *Behavior, Animal; Biometry; Body Weight; *Dogs; Emotions; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Heart Rate; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Models, Psychological; *Personality; Problem Solving; Social Behavior  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-6773 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:4738708 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4140  
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Author Christensen, J.W.; Rundgren, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Predator odour per se does not frighten domestic horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 112 Issue 1-2 Pages 136-145  
  Keywords Horse; Predator odour; Behaviour; Heart rate; Fear  
  Abstract Horses frequently react nervously when passing animal production farms and other places with distinctive smells, leading riders to believe that horses are innately frightened by certain odours. In three experiments, we investigated how horses respond to (1) urine from wolves and lions, (2) blood from slaughtered conspecifics and fur-derived wolf odour, and (3) a sudden auditory stimulus in either presence or absence of fur-derived wolf odour. The experiments were carried out under standardised conditions using a total of 45 naive, 2-year-old horses. In the first two experiments we found that horses showed significant changes in behaviour (Experiments 1 and 2: increased sniffing; Experiment 2 only: increased vigilance, decreased eating, and more behavioural shifts), but no increase in heart rate compared to controls when exposed to predator odours and conspecific blood in a known test environment. However, the third experiment showed that exposure to a combination of wolf odour and a sudden stimulus (sound of a moving plastic bag) caused significantly increased heart rate responses and a tendency to a longer latency to resume feeding, compared to control horses exposed to the sudden stimulus without the wolf odour. The results indicate that predator odour per se does not frighten horses but it may cause an increased level of vigilance. The presence of predator odour may, however, cause an increased heart rate response if horses are presented to an additional fear-eliciting stimulus. This strategy may be adaptive in the wild where equids share habitats with their predators, and have to trade-off time and energy spent on anti-predation responses against time allocated to essential non-defensive activities.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 4339  
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Author Christensen, J.W.; Keeling, L.J.; Nielsen, B.L. doi  openurl
  Title Responses of horses to novel visual, olfactory and auditory stimuli Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 93 Issue 1-2 Pages 53-65  
  Keywords Horses; Novelty responses; Fear; Behaviour; Heart rate  
  Abstract Responses of horses towards fear-eliciting stimuli can have important consequences for both human and horse safety. This experiment was designed to investigate behavioural and heart rate (HR) responses of horses to novel visual, auditory and olfactory stimuli. Twenty-four 2-year-old, previously unhandled, stallions were habituated to receive a food reward from a container in a test arena. Each horse was exposed to three 2 min tests in a balanced design where in addition to the feed container, either a traffic cone (visual test), white noise (auditory test) or eucalyptus oil applied to the inside of the container (olfactory test) were used as the novel stimuli. Compared to the control, less time was spent eating during all tests. There was no difference in locomotion activity in the different test situations, but presentation of the novel visual and auditory stimuli elicited significantly increased HR responses in the horses, compared to their response to the arena without novel stimuli (control), whereas there was no increase in HR response to the olfactory stimulus. However, during the olfactory test, the horses had an increased number of eating bouts and became more vigilant towards their surroundings, whereas during the visual and auditory tests, more time was spent alert towards the stimulus. The horses also took significantly more steps backwards in response to the auditory test. The heart rate responses correlated between tests and reflect a non-differentiated activation of the sympathetic nervous system, while the behavioural responses were linked to the type of stimulus.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2256  
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Author Christensen, J.W.; Rundgren, M.; Olsson, K. openurl 
  Title Training methods for horses: habituation to a frightening stimulus Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 38 Issue 5 Pages 439-443  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Conditioning (Psychology); *Fear; Heart Rate/*physiology; Horses/physiology/*psychology; Learning; Male; Random Allocation; *Reinforcement (Psychology); Safety; Time Factors  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Responses of horses in frightening situations are important for both equine and human safety. Considerable scientific interest has been shown in development of reactivity tests, but little effort has been dedicated to the development of appropriate training methods for reducing fearfulness. OBJECTIVES: To investigate which of 3 different training methods (habituation, desensitisation and counter-conditioning) was most effective in teaching horses to react calmly in a potentially frightening situation. HYPOTHESES: 1) Horses are able to generalise about the test stimulus such that, once familiar with the test stimulus in one situation, it appears less frightening and elicits a reduced response even when the stimulus intensity is increased or the stimulus is presented differently; and 2) alternative methods such as desensitisation and counter-conditioning would be more efficient than a classic habituation approach. METHODS: Twenty-seven naive 2-year-old Danish Warmblood stallions were trained according to 3 different methods, based on classical learning theory: 1) horses (n = 9) were exposed to the full stimulus (a moving, white nylon bag, 1.2 x 0.75 m) in 5 daily training sessions until they met a predefined habituation criterion (habituation); 2) horses (n = 9) were introduced gradually to the stimulus and habituated to each step before the full stimulus was applied (desensitisation); 3) horses (n = 9) were trained to associate the stimulus with a positive reward before being exposed to the full stimulus (counter-conditioning). Each horse received 5 training sessions of 3 min per day. Heart rate and behavioural responses were recorded. RESULTS: Horses trained with the desensitisation method showed fewer flight responses in total and needed fewer training sessions to learn to react calmly to test stimuli. Variations in heart rate persisted even when behavioural responses had ceased. In addition, all horses on the desensitisation method eventually habituated to the test stimulus whereas some horses on the other methods did not. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Desensitisation appeared to be the most effective training method for horses in frightening situations. Further research is needed in order to investigate the role of positive reinforcement, such as offering food, in the training of horses.  
  Address Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Tjele, Denmark  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:16986605 Approved no  
  Call Number Serial 1783  
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Author Cottin, F.; Barrey, E.; Lopes, P.; Billat, V. openurl 
  Title Effect of repeated exercise and recovery on heart rate variability in elite trotting horses during high intensity interval training Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 36 Pages 204-209  
  Keywords Animals; Electrocardiography/veterinary; Fatigue/diagnosis/*veterinary; Fourier Analysis; Heart Rate/*physiology; Horses/*physiology; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*methods/*physiology; Respiration; Time Factors  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Interval training is a commonly used training method for trotting horses. In addition, trainers are provided with efficient and inexpensive heart rate monitor devices for the management of training. HYPOTHESIS: Since the high frequency (HF) frequency peak (fHF) of heart rate variability (HRV) corresponds to the breathing frequency in combination with stride frequency during trotting, it is hypothesised that modifications of breathing and stride frequencies induced by repeated exercise could be detected from fHF. METHODS: RR interval time series of 7 trotting horses were recorded during an interval training session. Interval training was made up of 5 successive 800 m high-velocity trotting runs (H1, H2...H5) separated by 1 min recovery bouts at low speed (R1, R2...R5). Fast Fourier transform (FFT) and Poincare plot analysis techniques were applied to RR series. RESULTS: Repeated exercise had significant effects on HRV components during interval training. Despite constant trotting velocities during high-speed and recovery, repetition induced a decrease in mean RR interval (H1: 295 +/- 19 vs. H5: 283 +/- 15 msec, P<0.05) and in the root mean square of successive differences in RR series (RMSSD; H1: 6.31 +/- 1.28 vs. H5: 5.31 +/- 1.31 msec, P<0.05). Furthermore, high-speed and recovery repetitions induced an increase in fHF (H1: 1.37 +/- 0.35 vs. H5: 1.62 +/- 0.40 Hz and R1: 0.22 +/- 0.02 vs. R4: 0.64 +/- 0.38 Hz, P<0.05). Hence, recovery induced a decrease in the s.d. of the successive RR series (SDRR; R3: 10.5 +/- 3.96 vs. R5: 6.17 +/- 2.65 msecs, P>0.05) and in the long term index of Poincare plot (SD2; R1: 43.29 +/- 28.90 vs. R5: 18.19 +/- 9.35 msecs, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The observed increase in fHF during the interval training could be induced by alterations of the coupling between breathing and stride frequency linked to the emergence of fatigue. The decrease in SD2 and SDRR during successive recovery bouts could be linked with a deterioration of the recovery pattern. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: HRV can provide breathing frequency data of Standardbreds during training without any respiratory device. Furthermore, HRV could provide useful makers of the emergence of fatigue states during training.  
  Address Laboratory of Exercise Physiology (LEPHE), University of Evry, E.A. 3872, Genopole, Boulevard F Mitterrand, F-91025 Evry cedex, France  
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  Notes PMID:17402419 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4009  
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