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Author Flauger, B.
Title The introduction of horses into new social groups with special regard to their stress level Type Manuscript
Year 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Pferd; Equiden; Eingliederungstechnik; Integrationspferd; Stress; Cortisol; Endokrine Reaktion; Gruppenhaltung; Verletzungsgefahr; Aggression; Futterplatzwahl; Kot; Geruchssinn; Mensch-Pferd Interaktion; horse; equids; introduction technique; integration horse; stress; cortisol; endocrine response; group housing; injury risk; aggression; feeding decision; faecal sample; olfaction; human-horse interaction
Abstract Horses are a highly social species living in complex social systems which should require them to memorise and generalise social experiences and distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics. In the main part of my thesis I concentrated on the specific conflict situation of a horse being introduced into a new social group, and investigated its behaviour and stress level. Horses were either introduced (1) immediately, (2) after an observation period, or (3) together with an integration horse after an observation period. Additionally, in the second part of my thesis I arranged several experiments to elaborate additional aspects which could affect the behaviour of horses during introductions. In this study I could describe a simplified method for measuring stress through the analysis of faecal GCMs in horses. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for 11-oxoaetiocholanolone using 11-oxoaetiocholanolone-17-CMO: BSA (3?,11-oxo-A EIA) as antigen showed high amounts of immunoreactive substances. The new assay increases the accuracy of the test and lowers the expenses per sample; also storing of samples at room temperature after collection is less critical. This is a big advantage both in the field of wildlife management of equids and in the field of equestrian sports (chapter 1). Comparing the different introduction techniques, the introduction with an integration horse led to significantly less total interactions and lower levels of aggression than the introduction of single horses, both immediately and after several days of observing the new group. Additionally, by observing the behaviour of the horses during everyday sociality I could develop a formula describing the interrelationship between expected aggression level and enclosure size per horse. The curve takes an exponential shape. Starting from a space allowance of 300 m2 and more per horse, the amount of aggressions per hour approaches zero. For the reduction of aggression levels and injury risks in socially kept horses I recommend an enclosure size of at least 300 m2 per horse (chapter 2). I further investigated the stress level of the introduced animals. Horses which were immediately introduced did not show elevated faecal GCMs. In contrast, horses which were introduced after an observation period had slightly elevated values 2 and 3 days after the introduction. For horses introduced together with an integration horse faecal GCMs were significantly above the baseline value on the day of introduction and 1 day after it. These differences between introduction techniques indicate that the introduction event itself is not as stressful as previously assumed. Rather standing together with an integration horse and not being able to integrate immediately into the complete group elicits stress in horses (chapter 3). In the commentary of chapter 4 several studies are discussed which failed to demonstrate social learning in horses. It is argued that they did not consider important aspects which could have an influence, such as the dominance status or the social background of the horses (chapter 4). In chapter 5 a social feeding situation was investigated. The social rank as well as the position of conspecifics affected the feeding strategy of horses. Domestic horses used social cognition and strategic decision making in order to decide where to feed. When possible they tended to return to the same, continuously supplied feeding site and switched to an ?avoidance tendency? in the presence of dominant horses or when another horse was already feeding there (chapter 5). One possibility to recognize group members is through olfactory recognition. In chapter 6 it is shown that horses are able to distinguish their own from their conspecifics? faeces. In addition, they paid most attention to the faeces of those group members from which they received the highest amount of aggressive behaviour (chapter 6). Horses show cognitive abilities because they are able to use humans as local enhancement cues when searching for food, independently of their body posture or gaze consistency when the persons face them. Moreover, they seem to orientate on the attention of familiar persons more than of unfamiliar persons (chapter 7). Altogether, the results of this thesis provide further support for the view that horses show good conflict resolution strategies. They are perfectly able to deal with the conflict situation of being introduced to new group members, and the introduction event itself is not as stressful as previously assumed. It is rather suggested that standing together with an integration horse and not being able to integrate immediately into the complete group elicits stress in horses. All additional experimental set-ups could demonstrate that horses are well capable of social cognition.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ epub18463 Serial 5736
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Author Flauger, B.; Krueger, K.
Title Aggressionslevel und Platzangebot bei Pferden (Equus caballus) [ Aggression level and enclosure size in horses (Equus caballus)] Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal
Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 495-504
Keywords Aggression / Verletzungsgefahr / Sozialverhalten / Gruppenhaltung / Pferdehaltung / Eingliederung von Pferden [aggression / injury risk / social behaviour / group housing / horse management / introduction of horses]
Abstract Viele Pferdebesitzer bevorzugen aus Angst vor aggressiven Interaktionen und Verletzungsgefahr der Tiere untereinander die Einzelhaltung, obwohl von Tierschutzorganisationen die Gruppenhaltung für Pferde empfohlen wird. In dieser Studie beobachteten wir während des alltäglichen Soziallebens als auch bei der Eingliederung von neuen Gruppenmitgliedern das Sozialverhalten, insbesondere das Aggressionsverhalten, von elf Gruppen domestizierter Pferde (Equus caballus) verschiedener Größe und Zusammensetzung. Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens hatten die Gruppe und der Paddock-Typ (Gras / kein Gras) keinen Einfluss auf die Verhaltensweisen, wohingegen die Paddockgröße unter 10000 m2 einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die submissiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) und einen nicht signifikanten Einfluss auf die aggressiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081) hatte. Allerdings verringerten sich sowohl die aggressiven als auch die submissiven Verhaltensweisen mit steigendem Platzangebot bis zu 10000 m2 (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=56; aggressive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.313, P = 0.019; submissive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.328, P = 0.014). Während den Eingliederungen reduzierten sich die Aggressionen pro Stunde mit der Vergrößerung des Platzangebotes (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034). Dies zeigte sich noch deutlicher, wenn Beobachtungen mit einem Platzangebot von über 10000 m2 ausgeschlos- sen wurden (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens näherte sich der Aggressionslevel der Nulllinie an, wenn das Platzangebot pro Pferd mehr als 331 m2 betrug. Deshalb empfehlen wir zur Reduzierung des Aggressionslevels und des Verletzungsrisikos von sozial gehaltenen Pferdegruppen ein Platzangebot von mindestens 331 m2 pro Pferd.

[Even though animal welfare organisations propose group housing for horse welfare, many owners stable horses individually for fear of aggressive interactions and injury risks. In the present study we observed social behaviour, and especially aggressiveness, in eleven domestic horse groups (Equus caballus) of different size and composition, in basic social situations and when new group members were introduced. During basic social situations, the group and the type of paddock (grass / no grass) had no effect on any of the behaviours, where- as the enclosure size below 10,000 m2 had a significant effect on submissive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) and an insignificant effect on aggressive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081). However, aggressive and submissive behaviour dimi- nished with the increase of enclosure sizes up to 10,000 m2 (Spearman rank correlation; n = 56; aggressive behaviour: r = -0.313, P=0.019; submissive behaviour: r=-0.328, P=0.014). During introductions, aggression levels per hour decreased with any increase of enclosure size (Spearman rank correlation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034) and even more when enclosure sizes above 10,000 m2 were excluded (Spearman rank correlation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). During basic social situations the aggression level approached zero when the space allowance was more than 331 m2 per horse. We therefore recommend keeping horse groups in an enclosure with at least 331 m2 per horse to reduce aggression and injuries.]
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5714
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Author Fürst, A.; Knubben, J.; Kurtz, A.; Auer, J.; Stauffacher, M.
Title Pferde in Gruppenhaltung: Eine Betrachtung aus tierärztlicher Sicht unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Verletzungsrisikos [Group housing of horses: veterinary considerations with a focus on the prevention of bite and kick injuries] Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 254-258
Keywords Verhalten, Gruppenhaltung, Prävention, Schlagverletzungen, Bissverletzungen, Tierschutz [Behaviour, group housing, prevention, bite injuries, kick injuries, animal protection]
Abstract Mit der zunehmenden Bedeutung der Gruppenhaltung von Pferden ist die Tierärzteschaft gefordert mitzuhelfen, das Verletzungsrisiko in

Gruppenhaltungssystemen zu verringern. Dem Vermeiden von Schlag- und Bissverletzungen kommt hierbei eine zentrale Bedeutung zu. Präventive

Maßnahmen konzentrieren sich im Wesentlichen auf die Gruppenzusammensetzung und Eingliederung neuer Pferde sowie auf die

Gestaltung der Haltungssysteme. Die Raumaufteilung und die Fütterungstechnik müssen equidentypisches Verhalten (Lokomotion, langandauernde

Futteraufnahme und schadensfreie soziale Interaktionen) erlauben. Es gilt, Kenntnisse über Zusammenhänge zwischen Haltung,

Fütterung, Nutzung, Verhalten und Gesundheit an Pferdehalter und Stallbaufirmen weiterzugeben.

[Although group housing of horses has become common practice, the risk of equine injury is substantial. The veterinary community is challenged

to reduce this risk, particularly with regard to injuries caused by kicking and biting. Preventive measures should focus on the disposition

of horses within the group, the introduction of new horses to the group and the design of the housing facility. Feeding methods as

well as the structure of the environment should meet the physiological requirements for horses; there should be adequate space for exercise,

extended foraging and the possibility of benign social interactions. Veterinarians need to educate horse owners and builders of equine

facilities about the husbandry, feeding, use, behaviour and health of horses.]
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5756
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Author Rose-Meierhöfer, S.; Standke, K.; Hoffmann, G.
Title Auswirkungen verschiedener Gruppengrößen auf Bewegungsaktivität, Body Condition Score, Liege- und Sozialverhalten bei Jungpferden Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Züchtungskunde Abbreviated Journal Züchtungskunde
Volume 82 Issue 4 Pages 282291
Keywords Liegen, Aktivität, Gruppenhaltung, Jungpferde, Sozialverhalten, Body Condition Score [Lying behaviour, activity behaviour, group housing, young horses, social behaviour, Body Condition Score]
Abstract Ziel der Untersuchung war es, herauszufinden, welche Auswirkungen eine Erhöhung der

Gruppengröße bei Jungpferden auf die Bewegungsaktivität, das Liege- und Sozialverhalten

und die Körperkondition hat. Hierfür wurden insgesamt 42 Pferde im Alter von ein

bis zwei Jahren in Laufstallhaltung in die Untersuchung einbezogen. Die Jungpferde aus

der Bewegungs- und Liegeverhaltensanalyse waren in zwei Kleingruppen (acht und

11 Tiere) und einer Großgruppe (23 Tiere) aufgestallt.

In der Bewegungsaktivität waren deutliche Unterschiede zu erkennen. Es ließ sich ein

positiver Einfluss einer höheren Tierzahl nachweisen, aber kein Einfluss des Alters. Beim

Ruheverhalten konnten höhere Liegezeiten und -frequenzen mit einer Zunahme der

Gruppengröße und eine Abnahme der Liegezeit mit zunehmendem Alter ermittelt werden.

Eine Störung des Liegeverhaltens durch Gruppengrößen, die nicht der natürlichen

Herdenstruktur des Pferdes entsprechen, wurde nicht nachgewiesen. Jedoch hatte die

Haltung der Jährlinge in der großen Gruppe einen Anstieg der repulsiven Verhaltensweisen

zur Konsequenz. Zudem zeigte die Bestimmung des Body Condition Scores

Unterschiede in der Körperkondition bei den Jährlingen der Groß- bzw. der Kleingruppe.

Einem Mangel an Bewegung, der für das Auftreten von Gliedmaßenerkrankungen und

Verhaltensstörungen verantwortlich gemacht wird, kann durch die Haltung von Jungpferden

in großen Gruppen entgegengewirkt werden.

[It is often discussed that the inactivity of horses causes diseases of their musculoskeletal system. Due to these problems the objective of the investigation was to quantify if the size of a group has an effect on the behaviour of young horses. Data from 42 horses in the age of one to two years have been involved in the investigation. The data of two small groups were compared with data of one big group with 23 horses. The movement and lying behaviour of 28 horses were measured with ALT pedometers. The social behaviour of 33 yearlings was documented by direct observation. The results show that the median of the movement time of horses in group A is 82 minutes per day. In group B this increases to a median of 101 and group C reaches the highest median of 149. In the case of lying time an increasing group size leads to a longer duration and a higher frequency of lying, whereas an increase in the age reduces the lying duration. International research studies have shown that keeping of horses in big group husbandry systems is not very common by the owners of horses. In contrast these investigations have shown that horse keeping in big groups has no negative influence on the social behaviour and the Body Condition Score of young horses.]
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5671
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