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Author Dyer, J.R.G.; Johansson, A.; Helbing, D.; Couzin, I.D.; Krause, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Leadership, consensus decision making and collective behaviour in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Phil. Trans. Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 364 Issue 1518 Pages 781-789  
  Keywords * leadership * consensus decision making * collective behaviour * human group  
  Abstract This paper reviews the literature on leadership in vertebrate groups, including recent work on human groups, before presenting the results of three new experiments looking at leadership and decision making in small and large human groups. In experiment 1, we find that both group size and the presence of uninformed individuals can affect the speed with which small human groups (eight people) decide between two opposing directional preferences and the likelihood of the group splitting. In experiment 2, we show that the spatial positioning of informed individuals within small human groups (10 people) can affect the speed and accuracy of group motion. We find that having a mixture of leaders positioned in the centre and on the edge of a group increases the speed and accuracy with which the group reaches their target. In experiment 3, we use large human crowds (100 and 200 people) to demonstrate that the trends observed from earlier work using small human groups can be applied to larger crowds. We find that only a small minority of informed individuals is needed to guide a large uninformed group. These studies build upon important theoretical and empirical work on leadership and decision making in animal groups.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5122  
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Author Falewee, C.; Gaultier, E.; Lafont, C.; Bougrat, L.; Pageat, P. url  openurl
  Title Effect of a synthetic equine maternal pheromone during a controlled fear-eliciting situation Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 101 Issue 1-2 Pages 144-153  
  Keywords Horses; Behaviour; Fear; Pheromone; Heart rate; Performance  
  Abstract Horses are known to show fear reactions when confronted with novelty and this can be a considerable hindrance in the context of working situations such as riding, dressage or racing. The aim of the present study was to measure the potential effects of a synthetic analogue of the Equine Appeasing Pheromone on saddled horses when subjected to a stressful situation using a double-blinded, placebo controlled study design. A group of 40 horses was analyzed during this study and horses were divided by sex, breed and reactivity into two homogenized groups. The test, which consisted of walking the horse through a fringed curtain, was selected from a range of tests which are used to assess behaviour for the selection of French breeding stock. Horses that could have been subjected to the test on a previous occasion, and therefore be familiar with it, were not included. Behavioural and physiological parameters were both taken into account with measures of time to go through the curtain, fear related typical behavioural patterns, based on available literature detailed in the bibliography, and heart rate being recorded. Parameters were analyzed by means of Mann-Whitney U-test. Significant differences were noticed between the two groups concerning heart rate data during the test (UMeanHR = 100.5, pMeanHR = 0.02; UMaxHR = 75, pMaxHR = 0.001) and during the whole measured period (UMeanHR = 67, pMeanHR = 0.005; UMaxHR = 58, pMaxHR = 0.002). Observation of the animals also revealed less behavioural items characteristic of fear within the treated group. As a result, horses performed the test with a better time performance when they received the pheromone analogue (U = 62, p = 0.002). The main parameter, area under the HR graph, is based on heart rate measure and performance. Differences noticed (U = 74, p = 0.002) for this parameter lead to the conclusion that horses who received EAP underwent less stress related consequences in terms of their cardiac physiology. As horses are subjected to a number of foreseeable stressful events this study suggests that the use of Equine Appeasing Pheromone could be a significant factor in improving the welfare of this species.  
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  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3992  
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Author Faria, J.J.; Dyer, J.R.G.; Tosh, C.R.; Krause, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Leadership and social information use in human crowds Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Animal Behaviour. Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 79 Issue 4 Pages 895-901  
  Keywords collective animal behaviour; group; human; inadvertent social cue; information; leadership  
  Abstract One of the big challenges for group-living animals is to find out who in a group has pertinent information (regarding food or predators) at any moment in time, because informed individuals may not be obviously recognizable to other group members. We found that individuals in human groups were capable of identifying those with information, and this identification increased group performance: the speed and accuracy of groups in reaching a target. Using video analysis we found how informed individuals might have been identified by other group members by means of inadvertent social cues (such as starting order, time spent following and group position). Furthermore, we were able to show that at least one of these cues, the group position of informed individuals, was indeed correlated with group performance. Our final experiment confirmed that leadership was even more efficient when the group members were given the identity of the leader. We discuss the effect of information status regarding the presence and identity of leaders on collective animal behaviour.  
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  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5192  
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Author Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. pdf  openurl
  Title Social feeding decisions in horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Feeding decision; Horse; Rank; Social behaviour  
  Abstract Like many other herbivores equids feed on rather evenly distributed resources. Especially in ruminants several studies have proved the influence of social organisations, rank, sex and the depletion of feeding sites on the feeding behaviour of individuals. However, it is not yet understood whether social aspects affect horses´ feeding decisions. Horses roam on vast habitats with constantly changing vegetation. In non-competitive situations domestic horses tend to return to the same feeding site until it is overgrazed. Whereas, for competition over limited food the social status of the individuals appears to be important. Curiosity about the influence of social rank and different social feeding conditions on the horses´ feeding decisions between two buckets, equally filled with high-quality surplus food, led us to create the test situation described here. The observer horses were alternately tested with a dominant and a subordinate demonstrator placed in one of three different positions. We conclude that domestic horses use cognitive strategic decision making in order to decide where to feed in a social feeding situation. When possible they tend to return to the same, continuously supplied feeding site and switch to an “avoidance tendency” when another horse is already feeding from it or in the presence of a dominant horse. Thus the position and the social rank of conspecifics affect the feeding strategy of horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Flauger, B. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5581  
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Author Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aggressionslevel und Platzangebot bei Pferden (Equus caballus) [ Aggression level and enclosure size in horses (Equus caballus)] Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 495-504  
  Keywords Aggression / Verletzungsgefahr / Sozialverhalten / Gruppenhaltung / Pferdehaltung / Eingliederung von Pferden [aggression / injury risk / social behaviour / group housing / horse management / introduction of horses]  
  Abstract Viele Pferdebesitzer bevorzugen aus Angst vor aggressiven Interaktionen und Verletzungsgefahr der Tiere untereinander die Einzelhaltung, obwohl von Tierschutzorganisationen die Gruppenhaltung für Pferde empfohlen wird. In dieser Studie beobachteten wir während des alltäglichen Soziallebens als auch bei der Eingliederung von neuen Gruppenmitgliedern das Sozialverhalten, insbesondere das Aggressionsverhalten, von elf Gruppen domestizierter Pferde (Equus caballus) verschiedener Größe und Zusammensetzung. Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens hatten die Gruppe und der Paddock-Typ (Gras / kein Gras) keinen Einfluss auf die Verhaltensweisen, wohingegen die Paddockgröße unter 10000 m2 einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die submissiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) und einen nicht signifikanten Einfluss auf die aggressiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081) hatte. Allerdings verringerten sich sowohl die aggressiven als auch die submissiven Verhaltensweisen mit steigendem Platzangebot bis zu 10000 m2 (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=56; aggressive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.313, P = 0.019; submissive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.328, P = 0.014). Während den Eingliederungen reduzierten sich die Aggressionen pro Stunde mit der Vergrößerung des Platzangebotes (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034). Dies zeigte sich noch deutlicher, wenn Beobachtungen mit einem Platzangebot von über 10000 m2 ausgeschlos- sen wurden (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens näherte sich der Aggressionslevel der Nulllinie an, wenn das Platzangebot pro Pferd mehr als 331 m2 betrug. Deshalb empfehlen wir zur Reduzierung des Aggressionslevels und des Verletzungsrisikos von sozial gehaltenen Pferdegruppen ein Platzangebot von mindestens 331 m2 pro Pferd.

[Even though animal welfare organisations propose group housing for horse welfare, many owners stable horses individually for fear of aggressive interactions and injury risks. In the present study we observed social behaviour, and especially aggressiveness, in eleven domestic horse groups (Equus caballus) of different size and composition, in basic social situations and when new group members were introduced. During basic social situations, the group and the type of paddock (grass / no grass) had no effect on any of the behaviours, where- as the enclosure size below 10,000 m2 had a significant effect on submissive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) and an insignificant effect on aggressive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081). However, aggressive and submissive behaviour dimi- nished with the increase of enclosure sizes up to 10,000 m2 (Spearman rank correlation; n = 56; aggressive behaviour: r = -0.313, P=0.019; submissive behaviour: r=-0.328, P=0.014). During introductions, aggression levels per hour decreased with any increase of enclosure size (Spearman rank correlation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034) and even more when enclosure sizes above 10,000 m2 were excluded (Spearman rank correlation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). During basic social situations the aggression level approached zero when the space allowance was more than 331 m2 per horse. We therefore recommend keeping horse groups in an enclosure with at least 331 m2 per horse to reduce aggression and injuries.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5714  
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Author Flauger, B.; Krueger, K.; Gerhards, H.; Möstl, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Simplified method to measure glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces of horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Veterinary Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Vet Res Comm  
  Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 185-195  
  Keywords ACTH challenge; enzyme immunoassay; stress behaviour; cortisol  
  Abstract Glucocorticoids or their metabolites can be measured in several body fluids or excreta, including plasma, saliva, urine and faeces. In recent years the measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has gained increasing attention, because of its suitability for wild populations. In horses, however, the group-specific enzyme immunoassay described so far has a limited racticability due to its complex extraction procedure. Therefore, we tested the applicability of

other enzyme immunoassays for glucocorticoid metabolites. The present study clearly proved that an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for 11-oxoetiocholanolone using 11-oxoetiocholanolone-17-CMO: BSA (3α,11-oxo-A EIA) as antigen showed high amounts of immunoreactive substances. Therefore it was possible to use just a small amount of the supernatant of a methanolic suspension of faeces. The results

correlated well with the already described method for measuring GCMs in horse faeces, i.e. analysing the samples with an EIA after a two step clean up procedure of the samples (Merl et al. 2000). In addition, the 3α,11-oxo-A EIA has the advantage of providing a bigger difference between baseline values and peak values after ACTH stimulation. The new assay increased the accuracy of the test,

lowered the expenses per sample, and storing samples at room temperature after collection was less critical than with other assays investigated in our study. This is a big advantage both in the field of wildlife management of equids and in the field of equestrian sports and it shows the importance of choosing an assay which is in good accordance with the metabolites excreted in a given species.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5073  
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Author Fureix, C.; Bourjade, M.; Henry, S.; Sankey, C.; Hausberger, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Exploring aggression regulation in managed groups of horses Equus caballus Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 138 Issue 3–4 Pages 216-228  
  Keywords Horses; Social behaviour; Aggression regulation; Coping in group; Management; Social development  
  Abstract Horses are highly social animals that have evolved to live in social groups. However, in modern husbandry systems, single housing prevails where horses experience social isolation, a challenge-to-welfare factor. One major reason for this single housing is the owners’ concerns that horses may injure each other during aggressive encounters. However, in natural conditions, serious injuries due to aggressive encounters are rare. What could therefore explain the claimed risks of group living for domestic horses? Basing our questioning on the current knowledge of the social life of horses in natural conditions, we review different practices that may lead to higher levels of aggression in horses and propose practical solutions. Observations of natural and feral horses mostly indicate a predominance of low frequencies and mild forms of aggression, based on subtle communication signals and ritualized displays and made possible by group stability (i.e. stable composition), dominance hierarchy and learning of appropriate social skills by young horses. Obviously, adults play a major role here in canalizing undesirable behaviours, and social experience during development, associated with a diversity of social partners, seems to be a prerequisite for the young horse to become socially skilled. Given the natural propensity of horses to have a regulation of aggression in groups, the tendency to display more aggression in groups of domestic horses under some management practices seems clearly related to the conditions offered. We therefore review the managing practices that could trigger aggressiveness in horses. Non social practices (space, resource availability) and social practices (group size, stability of membership, composition and opportunities for social experiences during development) in groups of domestic horses are discussed here. Finally, we propose simple practical solutions leading to more peaceful interactions in groups of domestic horses, based on the knowledge of horses’ natural social life which therefore should be enhanced (e.g. ensuring roughage availability, favouring group stability, introducing socially experienced adults in groups of young horses, etc.). The state of the art indicates that many questions still need to be answered. Given the importance of the associated welfare issues and the consequences on the use of horses, further research is required, which could benefit horses… and humans.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5648  
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Author Fürst, A.; Knubben, J.; Kurtz, A.; Auer, J.; Stauffacher, M. openurl 
  Title Pferde in Gruppenhaltung: Eine Betrachtung aus tierärztlicher Sicht unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Verletzungsrisikos [Group housing of horses: veterinary considerations with a focus on the prevention of bite and kick injuries] Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 3 Pages 254-258  
  Keywords Verhalten, Gruppenhaltung, Prävention, Schlagverletzungen, Bissverletzungen, Tierschutz [Behaviour, group housing, prevention, bite injuries, kick injuries, animal protection]  
  Abstract Mit der zunehmenden Bedeutung der Gruppenhaltung von Pferden ist die Tierärzteschaft gefordert mitzuhelfen, das Verletzungsrisiko in

Gruppenhaltungssystemen zu verringern. Dem Vermeiden von Schlag- und Bissverletzungen kommt hierbei eine zentrale Bedeutung zu. Präventive

Maßnahmen konzentrieren sich im Wesentlichen auf die Gruppenzusammensetzung und Eingliederung neuer Pferde sowie auf die

Gestaltung der Haltungssysteme. Die Raumaufteilung und die Fütterungstechnik müssen equidentypisches Verhalten (Lokomotion, langandauernde

Futteraufnahme und schadensfreie soziale Interaktionen) erlauben. Es gilt, Kenntnisse über Zusammenhänge zwischen Haltung,

Fütterung, Nutzung, Verhalten und Gesundheit an Pferdehalter und Stallbaufirmen weiterzugeben.

[Although group housing of horses has become common practice, the risk of equine injury is substantial. The veterinary community is challenged

to reduce this risk, particularly with regard to injuries caused by kicking and biting. Preventive measures should focus on the disposition

of horses within the group, the introduction of new horses to the group and the design of the housing facility. Feeding methods as

well as the structure of the environment should meet the physiological requirements for horses; there should be adequate space for exercise,

extended foraging and the possibility of benign social interactions. Veterinarians need to educate horse owners and builders of equine

facilities about the husbandry, feeding, use, behaviour and health of horses.]
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5756  
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Author G. Hoffmann, G.; Bockisch, F.-J.; Kreimeier, P. openurl 
  Title Einfluss des Haltungssystems auf die Bewegungsaktivität und Stressbelastung bei Pferden in Auslaufhaltungssystemen Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Landbauforschung – vTI Agriculture and Forestry Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 2 Issue 59 Pages 105-112  
  Keywords Bewegung, Cortisol, Herzfrequenzvariabilität (HFV), Pferd, Verhalten [movement, cortisol, heart rate variability (HRV), horse, behaviour]  
  Abstract Frühere Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, dass die tägliche Bewegung für die Gesunderhaltung der Pferde notwendig ist. Inwieweit sich jedoch unterschiedliche Bewegungsangebote auf das Stress-und Bewegungsverhalten von Pferden in einer Gruppen-Auslaufhaltung auswirken und ob der Bewegungsbedarf der Pferde durch eine Auslaufhaltung ohne zusätzliche Bewegung gedeckt werden kann, ist der Literatur bisher nicht zu entnehmen. Daher sollte in der nachfolgend beschriebenen Untersuchung der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Auswirkungen verschiedene Bewegungsangebote auf die Bewegungsaktivität von Pferden in Gruppen-Auslaufhaltungen haben und ob diese das Wohlbefinden der Tiere beeinflussen. Letzteres wurde durch Messung der Herzfrequenzvariabilität und Bestimmung von Cortisolmetaboliten im Pferdekot erfasst und die Bewegungsaktivität der Pferde wurde mit ALT-Pedometern bestimmt.

Verglichen wurden eine Einzel-und Gruppenhaltung mit jeweils angrenzendem Auslauf, aber ohne eine zusätzliche Bewegung der Pferde außerhalb des Stalls. In drei weiteren Varianten der Gruppenhaltung bekamen die Pferde täglichen Auslauf auf einer unbegrünten Koppel, auf einer Weide oder durch gezielte Bewegung in einer Führanlage. Die Bewegungsaktivität konnte durch die zusätzliche Bewegung in Form von Weide oder Führanlage signifikant gesteigert werden.

Ein zusätzliches Bewegungsangebot führte bei den Pferden zu einer Abnahme der Stressbelastung und sollte auch den Pferden ermöglicht werden, die in einer Gruppenhaltung gehalten werden, um ihre physische und psychische Gesundheit zu erhalten.

[Former studies confirm the necessity of daily movement for the health of a horse. But so far no description could be found in the literature how different movement offerings impact the stress and movement behaviour of horses in group husbandries with close-by discharge. The same holds true for the question whether a discharge husbandry system can meet the movement requirements of horses if there isn’t any additional movement possibility. The aim of the present study was to examine different movement offerings, their effects on the movement activities of horses in a group horse husbandry with close-by discharge and the impact of the movement on the wellbeing of the animals.

The heart rate variability and the concentration of the cortisol metabolites in the horse excrement were analyzed for detecting the wellbeing of the horses. Additionally ALT-Pedometers were used for determining the movement activity.

A single and a group husbandry system, each with closeby discharge, were compared when horses had no additional movement outside the stable. In three further variants the group husbandry was supplemented with daily time on a non-grassy pasture land, a pasture or in a horse walker. Pasture or horse walker increased movement activity significantly. Nevertheless an additional movement offering resulted in a lower stress load of the horses and should also be allowed to horses in group husbandry systems to ensure the horse’s physical and mental health.]
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5661  
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Author Garamszegi, L.Z.; Møller, A.P.; Erritzøe, J. doi  openurl
  Title Coevolving avian eye size and brain size in relation to prey capture and nocturnality Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Roy Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 269 Issue 1494 Pages 961-967  
  Keywords adaptation; behaviour; brain size; coevolution; eye size; vision  
  Abstract Behavioural adaptation to ecological conditions can lead to brain size evolution. Structures involved in behavioural visual information processing are expected to coevolve with enlargement of the brain. Because birds are mainly vision–oriented animals, we tested the predictions that adaptation to different foraging constraints can result in eye size evolution, and that species with large eyes have evolved large brains to cope with the increased amount of visual input. Using a comparative approach, we investigated the relationship between eye size and brain size, and the effect of prey capture technique and nocturnality on these traits. After controlling for allometric effects, there was a significant, positive correlation between relative brain size and relative eye size. Variation in relative eye and brain size were significantly and positively related to prey capture technique and nocturnality when a potentially confounding variable, aquatic feeding, was controlled statistically in multiple regression of independent linear contrasts. Applying a less robust, brunching approach, these patterns also emerged, with the exception that relative brain size did not vary with prey capture technique. Our findings suggest that relative eye size and brain size have coevolved in birds in response to nocturnal activity and, at least partly, to capture of mobile prey.  
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  Notes 10.1098/rspb.2002.1967 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5452  
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