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Author Ahrendt, L.P.; Christensen, J.W.; Ladewig, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through social observation Type Abstract
  Year 2012 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 139 Issue 1 Pages 105-113  
  Keywords Horse; Social learning; Social interaction; Instrumental task; Investigative behaviour; Aggression  
  Abstract The ability of horses to learn through social observation may ease the implementation of new management systems, because the use of automatic feeders etc. by naive horses could be facilitated by observation of experienced horses. However, previous studies found no documentation for observational learning abilities in horses. This study aimed to investigate the ability of horses to learn an instrumental task from a familiar conspecific when social interaction was allowed during the demonstration. Two similar experiments were performed. In the first experiment, Observer horses (n=11) participated in ten successive demonstrations, where a trained Demonstrator opened an operant device by pushing a sliding lid aside with the muzzle in order to obtain a food reward. Immediately after the demonstrations the Observer horses were given the opportunity to operate the device alone. Control horses (n=11) were aware that the device contained food but were presented to the operant device without demonstration of the task. The learning criterion was at least two openings. Accomplishment of and latency to accomplish the learning criterion, and investigative behaviour towards the operant device were recorded. Five Observers and one Control, out of the eleven horses in each treatment group, accomplished the learning criterion. Even though this presents a high odds ratio (OR) in favour of the Observer treatment (OR=7.6), there was no significant difference between the treatment groups (P=0.15). Analysis of investigative behaviour showed, however, that the demonstrations increased the motivation of the Observer horses to investigate the device. Subsequently, a similar experiment was performed in a practical setting with 44 test horses (mixed age, gender and breed). We used the same operant device and the same number and type of demonstrations, although the horses were held on a loose rope to minimise aggression. In this second experiment, six of 23 Observer horses and five of 21 Control horses learned the instrumental task, representing no influence of the demonstration. Thus, this study did not demonstrate an ability of horses to learn an instrumental task through observation.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ S0168-1591(12)00087-1 Serial 5773  
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Author Albright, J.D.; Mohammed, H.O.; Heleski, C.R.; Wickens, C.L.; Houpt, K.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Crib-biting in US horses: Breed predispositions and owner perceptions of aetiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 41 Issue 5 Pages 455-458  
  Keywords HORSE; BEHAVIOUR; CRIB-BITING; BREED PREVALENCE; LEARNING  
  Abstract Reasons for performing study: Crib-biting is an equine stereotypy that may result in diseases such as colic. Certain breeds and management factors have been associated.

Objectives: To determine: breed prevalence of crib-biting in US horses; the likelihood that one horse learns to crib-bite from another; and owner perceptions of causal factors.

Methods: An initial postal survey queried the number and breed of crib-biting horses and if a horse began after being exposed to a horse with this habit. In a follow-up survey, a volunteer subset of owners was asked the number of affected and nonaffected horses of each breed and the extent of conspecific contact. The likelihood of crib-biting given breed and extent of contact was quantified using odds ratio (OR) and significance of the association was assessed using the Chi-squared test.

Results: Overall prevalence was 4.4%. Thoroughbreds were the breed most affected (13.3%). Approximately half of owners believed environmental factors predominantly cause the condition (54.4%) and crib-biting is learned by observation (48.8%). However, only 1.0% of horses became affected after being exposed to a crib-biter. The majority (86%) of horses was turned out in the same pasture with other horses and extent of contact with conspecifics was not statistically related to risk.

Conclusion: This is the first study to report breed prevalence for crib-biting in US horses. Thoroughbreds were the breed more likely to be affected. More owners believed either environmental conditions were a predominant cause or a combination of genetic and environmental factors contributes to the behaviour. Only a small number of horses reportedly began to crib-bite after being exposed to an affected individual, but approximately half of owners considered it to be a learned behaviour; most owners did not isolate affected horses.

Potential relevance: Genetic predisposition, not just intensive management conditions and surroundings, may be a factor in the high crib-biting prevalence in some breeds, and warrants further investigation. Little evidence exists to suggest horses learn the behaviour from other horses, and isolation may cause unnecessary stress.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5010  
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Author Austin, N.P.; Rogers, L.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limb preferences and lateralization of aggression, reactivity and vigilance in feral horses, Equus caballus Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 83 Issue 1 Pages 239-247  
  Keywords aggression; behavioural asymmetry; Equus caballus; eye preference; feral horse; limb preference; reactivity; side bias  
  Abstract Observational field studies were conducted on two remote populations of feral horses in Australia to determine whether lateralization is a characteristic of Equus caballus as a species or results from handling by humans. Group 1 had been feral for two to five generations and Group 2 for 10–20 generations. In both groups, left-side biases were present during agonistic interactions and in reactivity and vigilance. Therefore, as in other vertebrates, the right hemisphere appears to be specialized to control agonistic behaviour and responses to potential threats. The leftwards bias was stronger in measures of behaviour involving more aggression and reactivity. Preferences to place one forelimb in front of the other during grazing were also determined. No population bias of forelimb preference was found, suggesting that such limb preferences present in domestic horses may be entrained. Since stronger individual limb preferences were found in immature than in adult feral horses, limb preference may be modified by maturation or experience in the natural habitat. Stronger limb preference was associated significantly with elevated attention to the environment but only in younger feral horses. No sex differences in lateralization were found. The findings are evidence that horses show visual lateralization, as in other vertebrates, not dependent on handling by humans. Limb preference during grazing, by contrast, does appear to depend on experience.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5651  
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Author Austin, N.P.; Rogers, L.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lateralization of agonistic and vigilance responses in Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 151 Issue Pages 43-50  
  Keywords Behavioural lateralization: Eye preference; Limb preference; Aggression; Vigilance; Reactivity; Przewalski horses  
  Abstract tEye and limb preferences were scored in the closest undomesticated relative of Equuscaballus using the same methods as used previously to study laterality in feral horses.Observations were made of 33 Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) (male N = 20,female N = 13) living under natural social conditions on a large reserve in France. Signifi-cant left-eye/side biases were found in agonistic interactions within harem bands (M ± SEbias to left 58% ± 0.01 for threats, P < 0.001; 68% ± 0.05 for attacks; P < 0.001) and in stallionfights (threats, 52% ± 0.01 left, P < 0.001; attacks, 63% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001): as many as 80%of the horses were significantly lateralized in attack responses within harem bands. Lat-erality of vigilance was measured as lifting up the head from grazing and turning it to theleft or right side: a directional bias to the left was found (M ± SE 53% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001).Side bias in reactivity was calculated as the percent of head lifts above the level of thewithers on the left or right side and this was also left side biased (M ± SE 73% ± 0.03 left,P < 0.001). These results indicate right-hemisphere specialization for control of aggressionand responses to novelty. The left bias in attack scores within harem bands was strongerin males than females (P = 0.024) and in immature than adult horses (P = 0.032). Immaturehorses were also more strongly lateralized than adults in vigilance scores (P = 0.022), whichmay suggest that experience reduces these side biases. Our results show that Przewalskihorses exhibit left eye preferences, as do feral horses, and do so even more strongly thanferal horses. Considering feral and Przewalski horses together, we deduce that ancestralhorses had similar lateral biases. Also similar to feral horses, the Przewalski horses showedno significant forelimb preference at the group level or in the majority of horses at theindividual level, confirming the hypothesis that previously reported limb preferences indomestic breeds are entrained or generated by breed-specific selection.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5768  
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Author Autio, E.; Heiskanen, M.-L. doi  openurl
  Title Foal behaviour in a loose housing/paddock environment during winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 91 Issue 3-4 Pages 277-288  
  Keywords Foal behaviour; Horse; Loose house; Time budget; Weather  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to establish some basic facts about weanling horse (Equus caballus) behaviour in a loose housing/paddock environment during winter. The behaviour of 10 foals (seven American Standardbred and three Finnish cold-blooded foals) was observed in a cold loose housing/paddock environment from December 2002 to March 2003. The time budget, circadian rhythm and effect of weather conditions on behaviour were examined. The foals were observed for a total of 23 24-h periods by video recording. The method used was instantaneous sampling (), where the locations of foals were noted at every 15 min along with the behaviour performed at that time. Temperature, humidity and wind speed were recorded three times a day. The foals spent 43.2 +/- 6.6% of the time in the sleeping hall (an insulated building with a deep-litter bed), 51.4 +/- 5.8% in the open paddock and 5.2 +/- 2.7% in the shelter (a two-sided, roofed entrance shelter in front of the sleeping hall). The time spent outdoors was greatest between the hours of 08:00 and 20:00, but the foals spent some time outdoors also at night. They spent most of the day eating hay (27.6 +/- 3.0%) (offered ad libitum), standing (25.5 +/- 2.8%) and resting (32.1 +/- 2.4%). The proportion of locomotive behaviour patterns was 5% of the observations. The foals in this study were able to perform species-specific behaviour patterns (resting, eating, being active) and to follow the natural circadian rhythm of these patterns. The behaviour of the foals did not change much as the temperature dropped from 0 to -20 [degree sign]C. The time spent in the sleeping hall did not increase greatly, nor the time spent eating, resting or lying close to each other (huddling). On the basis of their behaviour, the weanling horses did not seem to suffer from the cold environment.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3632  
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Author Bahloul, K.; Pereladova, O.B.; Soldatova, N.; Fisenko, G.; Sidorenko, E.; Sempere, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Social organization and dispersion of introduced kulans (Equus hemionus kulan) and Przewalski horses (Equus przewalski) in the Bukhara Reserve, Uzbekistan Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Arid Environments Abbreviated Journal J. Arid. Environ.  
  Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 309-323  
  Keywords Przewalski horses; kulans; Central Asia; home range; behaviour  
  Abstract Asiatic wild asses and Przewalski horses initially inhabited steppe, semi-desert and desert areas, but Przewalski horses became extinct in the wild, and kulans disappeared at the beginning of the 20th century, except for a small population in Turkmenistan. The Bukhara Breeding Centre (Uzbekistan) was created in 1976 for reintroduction and conservation of wild ungulate species. In 1977-1978, five kulans (two males and three females), from Barsa-Kelmes island on the Aral sea, were introduced into the reserve. The group increased to 25-30 animals in 1989-1990, when eight Przewalski horses from Moscow and St Petersburg zoos were introduced. We analysed the home ranges, preferred habitats and social interactions of these closely related species during 1995-1998 by seasonal and group composition. Horses and asses formed a reproductive group and a secondary non-reproductive group. The home range of the secondary group was larger than the reproductive group and seemed to be less dependent from the watering places. Przewalski horses were less adapted to semi-desert conditions (both water and vegetation needs) than kulan.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 777  
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Author Bang, A.; Deshpande, S.; Sumana, A.; Gadagkar, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Choosing an appropriate index to construct dominance hierarchies in animal societies: a comparison of three indices Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 79 Issue 3 Pages 631-636  
  Keywords dominance behaviour; dominance hierarchy; dominance index; dominance rank; Ropalidia cyathiformis; Ropalidia marginata; social wasp  
  Abstract A plethora of indices have been proposed and used to construct dominance hierarchies in a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate societies, although the rationale for choosing a particular index for a particular species is seldom explained. In this study, we analysed and compared three such indices, viz Clutton-Brock et al.'s index (CBI), originally developed for red deer, Cervus elaphus, David's score (DS) originally proposed by the statistician H. A. David and the frequency-based index of dominance (FDI) developed and routinely used by our group for the primitively eusocial wasps Ropalidia marginata and Ropalidia cyathiformis. Dominance ranks attributed by all three indices were strongly and positively correlated for both natural data sets from the wasp colonies and for artificial data sets generated for the purpose. However, the indices differed in their ability to yield unique (untied) ranks in the natural data sets. This appears to be caused by the presence of noninteracting individuals and reversals in the direction of dominance in some of the pairs in the natural data sets. This was confirmed by creating additional artificial data sets with noninteracting individuals and with reversals. Based on the criterion of yielding the largest proportion of unique ranks, we found that FDI is best suited for societies such as the wasps belonging to Ropalidia, DS is best suited for societies with reversals and CBI remains a suitable index for societies such as red deer in which multiple interactions are uncommon.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5837  
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Author Baragli, P.; Vitale, V.; Paoletti, E.; Sighieri, C.; Reddon, A.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Detour behaviour in horses (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Abbreviated Journal Journal of Ethology  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 227-234  
  Keywords Detour behaviour; Equus caballus; Horses; Lateralization; Spatial reasoning  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of horses (Equus caballus) to detour around symmetric and asymmetric obstacles. Ten female Italian saddle horses were each used in three detour tasks. In the first task, the ability to detour around a symmetrical obstacle was evaluated; in the second and third tasks subjects were required to perform a detour around an asymmetrical obstacle with two different degrees of asymmetry. The direction chosen to move around the obstacle and time required to make the detour were recorded. The results suggest that horses have the spatial abilities required to perform detour tasks with both symmetric and asymmetric obstacles. The strategy used to perform the task varied between subjects. For five horses, lateralized behaviour was observed when detouring the obstacle; this was consistently in one direction (three on the left and two on the right). For these horses, no evidence of spatial learning or reasoning was found. The other five horses did not solve this task in a lateralized manner, and a trend towards decreasing lateralization was observed as asymmetry, and hence task difficulty, increased. These non-lateralized horses may have higher spatial reasoning abilities.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Japan Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0289-0771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5686  
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Author Bartos, L..; Bartosova, J.; Pluhacek, J.; Sindelarova, J. pdf  openurl
  Title Promiscuous behaviour disrupts pregnancy block in domestic horse (Equus caballus) mares: A counterstrategy against possible male infanticide Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords foetal loss, domestic horse, Bruce effect, sexual behaviour  
  Abstract It is a common practice that the domestic horse mare is removed from her home environment and transported elsewhere for mating. After conceiving she is returned back into her home environment and social group, containing often familiar stallions and geldings. If we presume that the behavioural adaptation for infanticide relevant for wild, or free-ranging horses has not be lost in domestication (and it is clear that it remains at least within feral populations), then we may expect that, unless prevented by fencing or other management measures, the dominant males in the home social group may subsequently attempt infanticide. Foetal loss is a common phenomenon in domestic horses, being usually substantially higher than that in other domestic ungulates reaching up to 40%. One adaptive response to infanticide risk in polygynous populations is the Bruce effect. Pregnant females terminate their pregnancies when exposed to a dominant strange male. Our previous studies on plain zebra suggested the possibility of the Bruce effect also in equids. In this study we therefore tested the presumption that the Bruce effect could explain foetal loss in domestic horses. Based on reproduction records from horse breeders, we have recently published that bringing a pregnant mare which had been mated away from home into a vicinity of a familiar male who was not the father of her foetus increased probability of pregnancy disruption (Behav Ecol Sociobiol DOI: 10.1007/s00265-011-1166-6). These mares aborted in 31% of cases, while none of those mated within the home stable aborted. Repeated sexual activity either by a stallion or dominant gelding from the normal home group was observed shortly after the mare came from away-mating. Pregnant mares isolated from home males by a fence were even seen soliciting them over the fence. Therefore, there is probably some other mechanism than the Bruce effect leading to pregnancy block in the mare. We speculate that, once returned to the home “herd”, and introduced to familiar males, mares were more likely to terminate their pregnancy to save energy and avoid likely future infanticidal loss of their progeny by dominant male(s) of the home social group. Additional data has now showed that if a mare was mated away from home and was brought into an environment containing mares only, she was less likely to abort than a mare returning to an environment containing familiar male or males. This further supports our above hypothesis. Supported by AWIN, EU FP7 project No. 266213.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bartos, L. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5544  
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Author Bartosova, J.; Komarkova, M.; Dubcova, J.; Bartos, L.; Pluhacek J. pdf  openurl
  Title Nursing behaviour in pregnant domestic mares (Equus caballus): Can they cope with dual maternal investment? Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Suckling behaviour; pregnancy; parent-offspring conflict; domestic horses; Equus caballus  
  Abstract Among mammals, lactation is the most energy demanding part of parental care and so parentoffspring conflict should arise over milk provided by the mother. Mother and offspring should disagree over the length and amount of the milk provision. We focused on effect of pregnancy on suckling behaviour variables as indicators of mother-offspring conflict in domestic horses. We presumed shorter suckling bouts and higher rates of rejected and/or terminated suckling in pregnant mares compared to non-pregnant ones. Increasing conflict over amount of maternal investment between mother and her young are to be expected because of her parallel investment into a nursed foal and a foetus. Eight groups of loose housed lactating mares with foals of Kladruby horse were studied at the National Stud Kladruby nad Labem (Czech Republic) from deliveries to abrupt weaning (at the age of 127 to 210 days). We recorded 10 848 suckling solicitations of 79 mare-foal pairs, from which 10 607 resulted in a suckling bout. In 41 cases a nursing mare became pregnant during lactation. We found no significant effect of pregnancy either on probability of the mother rejecting suckling solicitation of her foal or probability that she terminated a suckling bout. However the overall effect of mother’s pregnancy on suckling bout duration was not significant, there were considerable differences in pregnant and non-pregnant mares according to who terminated a suckling bout, whether the mother or the foal (F(1, 9776) = 12.1, P < 0.001). In case it was the mother then the suckling bout was longer if she was pregnant (65.36 ± 1.25 s) than barren (60.55 ± 1.36 s). We found no impact of pregnancy on duration of suckling bouts terminated by the foal. Further, nursing a foal during the first two trimesters of pregnancy had no negative impact on birth weight of the foetus. In conclusion, we found not higher, but a lower mother-offspring conflict in pregnant than in non-pregnant lactating mares while expecting just the opposite. We suggest that pregnant mares compensate their nursed foals during intensive stages of lactation through a relaxed mother-offspring conflict for later decrease in investment due to increasing demands of the foetus and/or for the shorter period of milk supply. Our results (partly published in Bartosova et al. 2011, PLoS ONE 6(8): e22068) are of high importance in horse breeding. One of the main arguments for early weaning of the foals is regeneration of their pregnant mothers before upcoming delivery. Here we present evidence that a pregnant mare “counts” with her dual maternal investment and “employs” evolutionary mechanisms enabling her to rear a vital foetus. From this point of view there is no objective reason for stressful weaning of her nursed offspring practised in conventional breeding. Supported by AWIN, EU FP7 project No. 266213.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Bartosova, J. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor Krueger, K.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5501  
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