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Author Krueger, K.; Esch, L.; Byrne, R.
Title Animal behaviour in a human world: A crowdsourcing study on horses that open door and gate mechanisms Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 14 Issue 6 Pages e0218954
Keywords
Abstract Anecdotal reports of horses opening fastened doors and gates are an intriguing way of exploring the possible scope of horses' problem-solving capacities. The species' natural environment has no analogues of the mechanisms involved. Scientific studies on the topic are missing, because the rate of occurrence is too low for exploration under controlled conditions. Therefore, we compiled from lay persons case reports of horses opening closed doors and gates. Additionally, we collected video documentations at the internet platform YouTube, taking care to select raw data footage of unedited, clearly described and clearly visible cases of animals with no distinct signs of training or reduced welfare. The data included individuals opening 513 doors or gates on hinges, 49 sliding doors, and 33 barred doors and gateways; mechanisms included 260 cases of horizontal and 155 vertical bars, 43 twist locks, 42 door handles, 34 electric fence handles, 40 carabiners, and 2 locks with keys. Opening was usually for escape, but also for access to food or stable-mates, or out of curiosity or playfulness. While 56 percent of the horses opened a single mechanism at one location, 44 percent opened several types of mechanism (median = 2, min. = 1, max. = 5) at different locations (median = 2, min. = 1, max. = 4). The more complex the mechanism was, the more movements were applied, varying from median 2 for door handles to 10 for carabiners. Mechanisms requiring head- or lip-twisting needed more movements, with significant variation between individuals. 74 horses reported in the questionnaire had options for observing the behaviour in stable mates, 183 did not, which indicates that the latter learned to open doors and gates either individually or from observing humans. Experience favours opening efficiency; subjects which opened several door types applied fewer movements per lock than horses which opened only one door type. We failed to identify a level of complexity of door-fastening mechanism that was beyond the learning capacity of the horse to open. Thus, all devices in frequent use, even carabiners and electric fence handles, are potentially vulnerable to opening by horses, something which needs to be considered in relation to keeping horses safely.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6580
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Author McCoy, D.E.; Schiestl, M.; Neilands, P.; Hassall, R.; Gray, R.D.; Taylor, A.H.
Title New Caledonian Crows Behave Optimistically after Using Tools Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords tool use; New Caledonian crows; optimism; cognitive bias; animal emotion; intrinsic motivation; comparative cognition
Abstract Summary Are complex, species-specific behaviors in animals reinforced by material reward alone or do they also induce positive emotions? Many adaptive human behaviors are intrinsically motivated: they not only improve our material outcomes, but improve our affect as well [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Work to date on animal optimism, as an indicator of positive affect, has generally focused on how animals react to change in their circumstances, such as when their environment is enriched [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14] or they are manipulated by humans [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23], rather than whether complex actions improve emotional state. Here, we show that wild New Caledonian crows are optimistic after tool use, a complex, species-specific behavior. We further demonstrate that this finding cannot be explained by the crows needing to put more effort into gaining food. Our findings therefore raise the possibility that intrinsic motivation (enjoyment) may be a fundamental proximate cause in the evolution of tool use and other complex behaviors. Video Abstract
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6581
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Author d'Ingeo, S.; Quaranta, A.; Siniscalchi, M.; Stomp, M.; Coste, C.; Bagnard, C.; Hausberger, M.; Cousillas, H.
Title Horses associate individual human voices with the valence of past interactions: a behavioural and electrophysiological study Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 11568
Keywords
Abstract Brain lateralization is a phenomenon widely reported in the animal kingdom and sensory laterality has been shown to be an indicator of the appraisal of the stimulus valence by an individual. This can prove a useful tool to investigate how animals perceive intra- or hetero-specific signals. The human-animal relationship provides an interesting framework for testing the impact of the valence of interactions on emotional memories. In the present study, we tested whether horses could associate individual human voices with past positive or negative experiences. Both behavioural and electroencephalographic measures allowed examining laterality patterns in addition to the behavioural reactions. The results show that horses reacted to voices associated with past positive experiences with increased attention/arousal (gamma oscillations in the right hemisphere) and indicators of a positive emotional state (left hemisphere activation and ears held forward), and to those associated with past negative experiences with negative affective states (right hemisphere activation and ears held backwards). The responses were further influenced by the animals' management conditions (e.g. box or pasture). Overall, these results, associating brain and behaviour analysis, clearly demonstrate that horses' representation of human voices is modulated by the valence of prior horse-human interactions.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ d'Ingeo2019 Serial 6582
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Author Irving-Pease, E.K.; Ryan, H.; Jamieson, A.; Dimopoulos, E.A.; Larson, G.; Frantz, L.A.F.
Title Paleogenomics of Animal Domestication Type Book Chapter
Year (down) 2019 Publication Paleogenomics: Genome-Scale Analysis of Ancient DNA Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 225-272
Keywords
Abstract Starting with dogs, over 15,000 years ago, the domestication of animals has been central in the development of modern societies. Because of its importance for a range of disciplines – including archaeology, biology and the humanities – domestication has been studied extensively. This chapter reviews how the field of paleogenomics has revolutionised, and will continue to revolutionise, our understanding of animal domestication. We discuss how the recovery of ancient DNA from archaeological remains is allowing researchers to overcome inherent shortcomings arising from the analysis of modern DNA alone. In particular, we show how DNA, extracted from ancient substrates, has proven to be a crucial source of information to reconstruct the geographic and temporal origin of domestic species. We also discuss how ancient DNA is being used by geneticists and archaeologists to directly observe evolutionary changes linked to artificial and natural selection to generate a richer understanding of this fascinating process.
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Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Lindqvist, C.; Rajora, O.P.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-030-04753-5 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Irving-Pease2019 Serial 6583
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Author Giljov, A.; Karenina, K.
Title Differential roles of the right and left brain hemispheres in the social interactions of a free-ranging ungulate Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 168 Issue Pages 103959
Keywords Laterality; Hemispheric specialization; Brain asymmetry; Eye preference; Ungulate; Bovid
Abstract Despite the abundant empirical evidence on lateralized social behaviours, a clear understanding of the relative roles of two brain hemispheres in social processing is still lacking. This study investigated visual lateralization in social interactions of free-ranging European bison (Bison bonasus). The bison were more likely to display aggressive responses (such as fight and side hit), when they viewed the conspecific with the right visual field, implicating the left brain hemisphere. In contrast, the responses associated with positive social interactions (female-to-calf bonding, calf-to-female approach, suckling) or aggression inhibition (fight termination) occurred more likely when the left visual field was in use, indicating the right hemisphere advantage. The results do not support either assumptions of right-hemisphere dominance for control of various social functions or hypotheses about simple positive (approach) versus negative (withdrawal) distinction between the hemispheric roles. The discrepancy between the studies suggests that in animals, the relative roles of the hemispheres in social processing may be determined by a fine balance of emotions and motivations associated with the particular social reaction difficult to categorize for a human investigator. Our findings highlight the involvement of both brain hemispheres in the control of social behaviour.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6587
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Author Leliveld, L.M.C.
Title From Science to Practice: A Review of Laterality Research on Ungulate Livestock Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Symmetry Abbreviated Journal Symmetry
Volume 11 Issue 9 Pages 1157
Keywords hemispheric asymmetries; farm animals; emotional processing; animal cognition; development; human-animal interactions; animal welfare
Abstract In functional laterality research, most ungulate livestock species have until recently been mainly overlooked. However, there are many scientific and practical benefits of studying laterality in ungulate livestock. As social, precocial and domestic species, they may offer insight into the mechanisms involved in the ontogeny and phylogeny of functional laterality and help to better understand the role of laterality in animal welfare. Until now, most studies on ungulate livestock have focused on motor laterality, but interest in other lateralized functions, e.g., cognition and emotions, is growing. Increasingly more studies are also focused on associations with age, sex, personality, health, stress, production and performance. Although the full potential of research on laterality in ungulate livestock is not yet exploited, findings have already shed new light on central issues in cognitive and emotional processing and laid the basis for potentially useful applications in future practice, e.g., stress reduction during human-animal interactions and improved assessments of health, production and welfare. Future research would benefit from further integration of basic laterality methodology (e.g., testing for individual preferences) and applied ethological approaches (e.g., established emotionality tests), which would not only improve our understanding of functional laterality but also benefit the assessment of animal welfare.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6588
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Author Amici, F.; Widdig, A.; Lehmann, J.; Majolo, B.
Title A meta-analysis of interindividual differences in innovation Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.
Volume 155 Issue Pages 257-268
Keywords age; bad competitor hypothesis; excess of energy hypothesis; innovation; interindividual differences; intraspecific variation; personality; rank; sex
Abstract The ability to innovate and the social transmission of innovations have played a central role in human evolution. However, innovation is also crucial for other animals, by allowing them to cope with novel socioecological challenges. Although innovation plays such a central role in animals' lives, we still do not know the conditions required for innovative behaviour to emerge. Here, we focused on interindividual differences in innovation by (1) extensively reviewing existing literature on innovative behaviour in animals and (2) quantitatively testing the different evolutionary hypotheses that have been proposed to explain interindividual variation in innovation propensity during foraging tasks. We ran a series of phylogenetically controlled mixed-effects meta-regression models to determine which hypotheses (if any) are supported by currently available empirical studies. Our analyses show that innovation is more common in individuals that are older and belong to the larger sex, but also in more neophilic and/or explorative individuals. Moreover, these effects change depending on the study setting (i.e. wild versus captive). Our results provide no clear support to the excess of energy or the bad competitor hypotheses and suggest that study setting and interindividual differences in traits related to personality are also important predictors of innovation.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6589
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Author Bernauer, K.; Kollross, H.; Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.
Title How do horses (Equus caballus) learn from observing human action? Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords
Abstract A previous study demonstrated that horses can learn socially from observing humans, but could not draw any conclusions about the social learning mechanisms. Here we develop this by showing horses four different human action sequences as demonstrations of how to press a button to open a feed box. We tested 68 horses aged between 3 and 12 years. 63 horses passed the habituation phase and were assigned either to the group Hand Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used a hand to press the button, Head Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used the head, Mixed Demo (N = 12) for which a squatting person used both head and hand, Foot Demo (N = 12) in which a standing person used a foot, or No Demo (N = 13) in which horses did not receive a demonstration. 44 horses reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively, 40 of these were 75% of the Demo group horses and four horses were 31% of the No Demo group horses. Horses not reaching the learning criterion approached the human experimenters more often than those who did. Significantly more horses used their head to press the button no matter which demonstration they received. However, in the Foot Demo group four horses consistently preferred to use a hoof and two switched between hoof and head use. After the Mixed Demo the horses' actions were more diverse. The results indicate that only a few horses copy behaviours when learning socially from humans. A few may learn through observational conditioning, as some appeared to adapt to demonstrated actions in the course of reaching the learning criterion. Most horses learn socially through enhancement, using humans to learn where, and which aspect of a mechanism has to be manipulated, and by applying individual trial and error learning to reach their goal.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bernauer2019 Serial 6590
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Author Edwards, K.L.; Bansiddhi, P.; Paris, S.; Galloway, M.; Brown, J.L.
Title The development of an immunoassay to measure immunoglobulin A in Asian elephant feces, saliva, urine and serum as a potential biomarker of well-being Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal conphys
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords
Abstract Additional measures of well-being would be beneficial to the management of a variety of species in human care, including elephants. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is an immune protein associated with pathogen defense, which has been demonstrated to decrease during times of stress, and increase in response to positive stimuli. This paper describes the development and validation of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the quantification of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) IgA in feces, saliva, urine, and serum. Samples were collected weekly from four females for 6 months to assess IgA and glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations, establish relationships between these two biomarkers, and determine variability in IgA within and between individuals, and across sample types. IgA was quantified in all four sample types, although urinary concentrations were low and sometimes undetectable in individual samples. Concentrations were highly variable within and between individuals, with fecal, salivary and serum IgA, and fecal, salivary and urinary GCs all differing significantly across individuals. Contrary to previous findings, IgA and GC were generally not correlated. Serum IgA was less variable within individuals, with the exception of one female that experienced a brief illness during the study. However, marked inter-individual differences were still apparent. When data from all individuals were combined, fecal IgA was significantly predicted by salivary and urinary IgA; however, this relationship did not hold when individuals were analyzed separately. Analysis of a fifth female that exhibited a more severe systemic illness demonstrated clear increases in fecal IgA and GC, suggesting these may also be useful health biomarkers. Further investigation is needed to determine what sample type is most reflective of biological state in elephants, and how IgA concentrations are associated with health and positive and negative welfare states. Based on observed variability, a longitudinal approach likely will be necessary to use IgA as a measure of well-being.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6591
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Author Krueger, K.; Marr, I.; Dobler, A.; Palme, R.
Title Preservation of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and immunoglobulin A through silica gel drying for field studies in horses Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Conservation Physiology Abbreviated Journal conphys
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords
Abstract Non-invasive methods enable stress evaluation through measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the feces avoiding stressful blood drawing or stressful restraining of animals in the field. However, FGMs and IgA are mostly analysed in freshly frozen samples, which is difficult when fresh samples cannot be frozen immediately or frozen samples cannot be stored or transported. Good results were also derived from air-dried fecal samples, which are hampered by unstable air humidity in the field. These difficulties may be overcome, when drying of samples could be induced with colorless silica gel (SiO2) granules in a secure set-up, such as an air tight tube. We determined the speed of drying 1.5 g of a fresh fecal sample from six horses on air and on silica gel. Furthermore, FGMs and IgA were analysed in differently stored subsamples from 12 horses: in frozen fecal samples, in air- or silica gel-dried samples stored for 1 day and for 7 days, and in wet fecal samples kept in a tube at room temperature for 7 days. FGM levels remained stable in feces dried on air or on silica gel for 7 days, whereas IgA quantities showed a significant loss. Under field conditions, when freezing or transporting the frozen samples is not possible and humidity hampers air drying, drying samples on silica gel in air tight tubes appears to be very helpful and reliable for analysing FGMs.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2051-1434 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6594
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