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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6385  
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Author Sueur, C.; Jacobs, A.; Amblard, F.; Petit, O.; King, A.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How can social network analysis improve the study of primate behavior? Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication American Journal of Primatology Abbreviated Journal Am. J. Primatol.  
  Volume 73 Issue 8 Pages 703-719  
  Keywords interaction; association; social system; social structure; methodology; behavioral sampling  
  Abstract Abstract When living in a group, individuals have to make trade-offs, and compromise, in order to balance the advantages and disadvantages of group life. Strategies that enable individuals to achieve this typically affect inter-individual interactions resulting in nonrandom associations. Studying the patterns of this assortativity using social network analyses can allow us to explore how individual behavior influences what happens at the group, or population level. Understanding the consequences of these interactions at multiple scales may allow us to better understand the fitness implications for individuals. Social network analyses offer the tools to achieve this. This special issue aims to highlight the benefits of social network analysis for the study of primate behaviour, assessing it's suitability for analyzing individual social characteristics as well as group/population patterns. In this introduction to the special issue, we first introduce social network theory, then demonstrate with examples how social networks can influence individual and collective behaviors, and finally conclude with some outstanding questions for future primatological research. Am. J. Primatol. 73:703?719, 2011. ? 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Wiley-Blackwell Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0275-2565 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1002/ajp.20915 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6410  
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Author Schino, G.; Aureli, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Reciprocity in group-living animals: partner control versus partner choice Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Biological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Biol Rev  
  Volume 92 Issue 2 Pages 665-672  
  Keywords cooperation; reciprocity; partner control; partner choice; proximate mechanisms  
  Abstract ABSTRACT Reciprocity is probably the most debated of the evolutionary explanations for cooperation. Part of the confusion surrounding this debate stems from a failure to note that two different processes can result in reciprocity: partner control and partner choice. We suggest that the common observation that group-living animals direct their cooperative behaviours preferentially to those individuals from which they receive most cooperation is to be interpreted as the result of the sum of the two separate processes of partner control and partner choice. We review evidence that partner choice is the prevalent process in primates and propose explanations for this pattern. We make predictions that highlight the need for studies that separate the effects of partner control and partner choice in a broader variety of group-living taxa.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Wiley/Blackwell (10.1111) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1464-7931 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1111/brv.12248 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6411  
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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.
Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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Author Gaunitz, C.; Fages, A.; Hanghøj, K.; Albrechtsen, A.; Khan, N.; Schubert, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Owens, I.J.; Felkel, S.; Bignon-Lau, O.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Mittnik, A.; Mohaseb, A.F.; Davoudi, H.; Alquraishi, S.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Al-Rasheid, K.A.S.; Crubézy, E.; Benecke, N.; Olsen, S.; Brown, D.; Anthony, D.; Massy, K.; Pitulko, V.; Kasparov, A.; Brem, G.; Hofreiter, M.; Mukhtarova, G.; Baimukhanov, N.; Lõugas, L.; Onar, V.; Stockhammer, P.W.; Krause, J.; Boldgiv, B.; Undrakhbold, S.; Erdenebaatar, D.; Lepetz, S.; Mashkour, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wallner, B.; Merz, V.; Merz, I.; Zaibert, V.; Willerslev, E.; Librado, P.; Outram, A.K.; Orlando, L. doi  openurl
  Title Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 6212  
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Author Guidi, A.; Lanata, A.; Valenza, G.; Scilingo, E.P.; Baragli, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Validation of smart textile electrodes for electrocardiogram monitoring in free-moving horses Type Journal Article
  Year Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal J. Vet. Behav.  
  Volume 17 Issue Pages 19-23  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This article focuses on the validation of smart textile electrodes used to acquire electrocardiogram (ECG) signals in horses in a comfortable and robust manner. The performance of smart textile electrodes is compared with standard Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of the percentage of motion artifacts (MAs, the noise that results from the movement of electrodes against the skin) and signal quality. Seven healthy Standardbred mares were equipped with 2 identical electronic systems for the simultaneous collection of ECGs. One system was equipped with smart textile electrodes, whereas the second was equipped with standard Ag/AgCl electrodes. Each horse was then monitored individually in a stall for 1 hour, without any movement constraints. The ECGs were visually examined by an expert who blindly labeled the ECG segments that had been corrupted by MAs. Finally, the percentage of MAs (MA%) was computed as the number of samples of the corrupted segments over the whole length of the signal. The total MA% was found to be lower for the smart textiles than for the Ag/AgCl electrodes. Consistent results were also obtained by investigating MAs over time. These results suggest that smart textile electrodes are more reliable when recording artifact-free ECGs in horses at rest. Thus, improving the acquisition of important physiological information related to the activity of the autonomic nervous system, such as heart rate variability, could help to provide reliable information on the mood and state of arousal of horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1016/j.jveb.2016.10.001 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6213  
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Author Siniscalchi, M.; Padalino, B.; Aubé, L.; Quaranta, A. doi  openurl
  Title Right-nostril use during sniffing at arousing stimuli produces higher cardiac activity in jumper horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Laterality  
  Volume 20 Issue 4 Pages 483-500  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Lateralization in horses, Equus caballus, has been reported at both motor and sensory levels. Here we investigated left- and right-nostril use in 12 jumper horses freely sniffing different emotive stimuli. Results revealed that during sniffing at adrenaline and oestrus mare urine stimuli, horses showed a clear right-nostril bias while just a tendency in the use of the right nostril was observed during sniffing of other odours (food, cotton swab and repellent). Sniffing at adrenaline and urine odours was also accompanied by increasing cardiac activity and behavioural reactivity strengthening the role of the right hemisphere in the analysis of intense emotion and sexual behaviour.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1357-650x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2015.1005629 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6208  
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Author Collins, G.H.; Petersen, S.L.; Carr, C.A.; Pielstick, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages e103189  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis (up)  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6209  
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Author Hampson, B.A.; Zabek, M.A.; Pollitt, C.C.; Nock, B. url  openurl
  Title Health and behaviour consequences of feral horse relocation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Rangel. J. Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 173-180  
  Keywords equine, GPS, movement, range.  
  Abstract Despite ongoing projects involving the breeding and release of equids into semi-wild and wild environments, insufficient information is available in the literature that describes strategies used by equids to adapt and survive in a novel environment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of naïve, feral Equus caballus (horse) mares to cope in a novel feral horse environment and investigate possible reasons why some may not survive this challenge. Four mares taken from a semi-arid desert environment remained in good health but significantly changed their movement behaviour pattern when surrounded by prime grazing habitat in a mesic temperate grassland. Three of the four mares captured from the prime grazing habitat and released in the semi-arid desert habitat died, apparently due to stress and/or starvation, within 8 weeks of release. The fourth mare survived 4 months but lost considerable weight.The group of mares relocated to the semi-arid desert environment had difficulty adapting to relocation and did not take up the movement behaviour strategy of local horses, which required long distance treks from a central water hole to distant feeding areas at least 15 km away. The movement behaviour, range use and health consequences of relocating equids may be of interest to wildlife ecologists, animal behaviourists and horse welfare groups. The observations may be used to guide those intending on relocating managed domestic and native horses to novel habitats.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6210  
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Author López-Bao, J.V.; Sazatornil, V.; Llaneza, L.; Rodríguez, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Indirect Effects on Heathland Conservation and Wolf Persistence of Contradictory Policies that Threaten Traditional Free-Ranging Horse Husbandry Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Letters  
  Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 448-455  
  Keywords Farmland biodiversity; heathlands; integration of environmental policies; management of livestock carcasses; traditional land uses; wolf conservation  
  Abstract Conservation agencies within the European Union promote the restoration of traditional land uses as a cost-effective way to preserve biodiversity outside reserves. Although the European Union pursues the integration of the environment into strategic decision-making, it also dictates sectoral policies that may damage farmland biodiversity. We illustrate this point by outlining the socioeconomic factors that allow the persistence of traditional free-ranging horse husbandry in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Free-ranging Galician mountain ponies provide ecological and socioeconomic services including the prevention of forest fires, the maintenance of heathlands and wolves, and the attenuation of wolf-human conflicts. This traditional livestock system may have persisted because it entails negligible costs for farmers. Wolf predation upon Galician mountain ponies does not threaten farmer's economies and seems to be tolerated better than attacks to more valuable stock. Recently, European Union's regulations on animal welfare, carcass management, or meat production put new economic and administrative burdens on farmers, make free-ranging horse rearing economically unsustainable, and incentivize its abandonment. The aim of the European Union to integrate environmental policies may be successful to preserve farmland biodiversity only through careful anticipation of the side effects of apparently unrelated regulations on the fragile equilibrium that sustain traditional land uses.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755-263x ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6211  
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