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Author Collins, G.H.; Petersen, S.L.; Carr, C.A.; Pielstick, L.
Title Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages e103189
Keywords
Abstract Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6209
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Author Hampson, B.A.; Zabek, M.A.; Pollitt, C.C.; Nock, B.
Title Health and behaviour consequences of feral horse relocation Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Rangel. J. Abbreviated Journal
Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 173-180
Keywords equine, GPS, movement, range.
Abstract Despite ongoing projects involving the breeding and release of equids into semi-wild and wild environments, insufficient information is available in the literature that describes strategies used by equids to adapt and survive in a novel environment. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of naïve, feral Equus caballus (horse) mares to cope in a novel feral horse environment and investigate possible reasons why some may not survive this challenge. Four mares taken from a semi-arid desert environment remained in good health but significantly changed their movement behaviour pattern when surrounded by prime grazing habitat in a mesic temperate grassland. Three of the four mares captured from the prime grazing habitat and released in the semi-arid desert habitat died, apparently due to stress and/or starvation, within 8 weeks of release. The fourth mare survived 4 months but lost considerable weight.The group of mares relocated to the semi-arid desert environment had difficulty adapting to relocation and did not take up the movement behaviour strategy of local horses, which required long distance treks from a central water hole to distant feeding areas at least 15 km away. The movement behaviour, range use and health consequences of relocating equids may be of interest to wildlife ecologists, animal behaviourists and horse welfare groups. The observations may be used to guide those intending on relocating managed domestic and native horses to novel habitats.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6210
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Author López-Bao, J.V.; Sazatornil, V.; Llaneza, L.; Rodríguez, A.
Title Indirect Effects on Heathland Conservation and Wolf Persistence of Contradictory Policies that Threaten Traditional Free-Ranging Horse Husbandry Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Letters
Volume 6 Issue 6 Pages 448-455
Keywords Farmland biodiversity; heathlands; integration of environmental policies; management of livestock carcasses; traditional land uses; wolf conservation
Abstract Conservation agencies within the European Union promote the restoration of traditional land uses as a cost-effective way to preserve biodiversity outside reserves. Although the European Union pursues the integration of the environment into strategic decision-making, it also dictates sectoral policies that may damage farmland biodiversity. We illustrate this point by outlining the socioeconomic factors that allow the persistence of traditional free-ranging horse husbandry in Galicia, northwestern Spain. Free-ranging Galician mountain ponies provide ecological and socioeconomic services including the prevention of forest fires, the maintenance of heathlands and wolves, and the attenuation of wolf-human conflicts. This traditional livestock system may have persisted because it entails negligible costs for farmers. Wolf predation upon Galician mountain ponies does not threaten farmer's economies and seems to be tolerated better than attacks to more valuable stock. Recently, European Union's regulations on animal welfare, carcass management, or meat production put new economic and administrative burdens on farmers, make free-ranging horse rearing economically unsustainable, and incentivize its abandonment. The aim of the European Union to integrate environmental policies may be successful to preserve farmland biodiversity only through careful anticipation of the side effects of apparently unrelated regulations on the fragile equilibrium that sustain traditional land uses.
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ISSN 1755-263x ISBN Medium
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6211
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Author Petersen, J.L.; Mickelson, J.R.; Cothran, E.G.; Andersson, L.S.; Axelsson, J.; Bailey, E.; Bannasch, D.; Binns, M.M.; Borges, A.S.; Brama, P.; da Câmara Machado, A.; Distl, O.; Felicetti, M.; Fox-Clipsham, L.; Graves, K.T.; Guérin, G.; Haase, B.; Hasegawa, T.; Hemmann, K.; Hill, E.W.; Leeb, T.; Lindgren, G.; Lohi, H.; Lopes, M.S.; McGivney, B.A.; Mikko, S.; Orr, N.; Penedo, M.C.T.; Piercy, R.J.; Raekallio, M.; Rieder, S.; Røed, K.H.; Silvestrelli, M.; Swinburne, J.; Tozaki, T.; Vaudin, M.; M. Wade, C.; McCue, M.E.
Title Genetic Diversity in the Modern Horse Illustrated from Genome-Wide SNP Data Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages e54997
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Abstract Horses were domesticated from the Eurasian steppes 5,000-6,000 years ago. Since then, the use of horses for transportation, warfare, and agriculture, as well as selection for desired traits and fitness, has resulted in diverse populations distributed across the world, many of which have become or are in the process of becoming formally organized into closed, breeding populations (breeds). This report describes the use of a genome-wide set of autosomal SNPs and 814 horses from 36 breeds to provide the first detailed description of equine breed diversity. FST calculations, parsimony, and distance analysis demonstrated relationships among the breeds that largely reflect geographic origins and known breed histories. Low levels of population divergence were observed between breeds that are relatively early on in the process of breed development, and between those with high levels of within-breed diversity, whether due to large population size, ongoing outcrossing, or large within-breed phenotypic diversity. Populations with low within-breed diversity included those which have experienced population bottlenecks, have been under intense selective pressure, or are closed populations with long breed histories. These results provide new insights into the relationships among and the diversity within breeds of horses. In addition these results will facilitate future genome-wide association studies and investigations into genomic targets of selection.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6214
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Author Pirault, P.; Danvy, S.; Verrier, E.; Leroy, G.
Title Genetic Structure and Gene Flows within Horses: A Genealogical Study at the French Population Scale Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One
Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages e61544
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Abstract Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average of -0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges.
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Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6215
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Author Pérez-Barbería, F.J.; Shultz, S.; Dunbar, R.I.
Title Evidence for coevolution of sociality and relative brain size in three orders of mammals Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Evolution Abbreviated Journal
Volume 61 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Pérez-Barbería2007 Serial 6221
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Author Van Schaik, C.P.; Burkart, J.M.
Title Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Philos Trans R Soc B Abbreviated Journal
Volume 366 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Van Schaik2011 Serial 6227
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Author Heyes, C.
Title What's social about social learning? Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication J Comp Psychol Abbreviated Journal
Volume 120 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Heyes2012 Serial 6228
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Author Van Horik, J.; Emery, N.
Title Evolution of cognition Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Van Horik2011 Serial 6230
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Author Shettleworth, S.J.
Title The evolution of comparative cognition: is the snark still a Boojum? Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Behav Processes Abbreviated Journal
Volume 80 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Shettleworth2009 Serial 6231
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