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Author Zohary, D.; Tchernov, E.; Horwitz, L.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication J Zool Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 245 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zohary1998 Serial 6240  
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Author Clutton-Brock, J. openurl 
  Title Origins of the dog: domestication and early history Type Book Chapter
  Year 1995 Publication The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Cambridge Editor Serpell, J.A.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Clutton-Brock1995 Serial 6247  
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Holekamp, K.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 279 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Benson-Amram2012 Serial 6266  
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Padilla de la Torre, M.; McElligott, A.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 279 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2012 Serial 6282  
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Author Whiten, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication J Comp Psychol Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Whiten1998 Serial 6291  
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Author Bates, D. openurl 
  Title Fitting linear mixed models in R Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication R News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bates2005 Serial 6293  
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Author openurl 
  Title R Foundation for Statistical Computing Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher R Foundation for Statistical Computing Place of Publication Vienna, Austria Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ ref80 Serial 6295  
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Author Zeder, M.A. openurl 
  Title Pathways to animal domestication Type Book Chapter
  Year 2011 Publication Harlan II: Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher University of California Place of Publication Davis Editor Damania, A.; Gepts, P.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zeder2011 Serial 6316  
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Author Zentall, T.R.; Sutton, J.E.; Sherburne, L.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title True imitative learning in pigeons Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Psychol Sci Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zentall1996 Serial 6372  
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Author Merkies, K.; McKechnie, M.J.; Zakrajsek, E. doi  openurl
  Title Behavioural and physiological responses of therapy horses to mentally traumatized humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Equine-assisted therapy; Ptsd; Horse; Behaviour; Cortisol; Heart rate  
  Abstract The benefits to humans of equine-assisted therapy (EAT) have been well-researched, however few studies have analyzed the effects on the horse. Understanding how differing mental states of humans affect the behaviour and response of the horse can assist in providing optimal outcomes for both horse and human. Four humans clinically diagnosed and under care of a psychotherapist for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were matched physically to four neurotypical control humans and individually subjected to each of 17 therapy horses loose in a round pen. A professional acting coach instructed the control humans in replicating the physical movements of their paired PTSD individual. Both horses and humans were equipped with a heart rate (HR) monitor recording HR every 5secs. Saliva samples were collected from each horse 30 min before and 30 min after each trial to analyze cortisol concentrations. Each trial consisted of 5 min of baseline observation of the horse alone in the round pen after which the human entered the round pen for 2 min, followed by an additional 5 min of the horse alone. Behavioural observations indicative of stress in the horse (gait, head height, ear orientation, body orientation, distance from the human, latency of approach to the human, vocalizations, and chewing) were retrospectively collected from video recordings of each trial and analyzed using a repeated measures GLIMMIX with Tukey's multiple comparisons for differences between treatments and time periods. Horses moved slower (p < 0.0001), carried their head lower (p < 0.0001), vocalized less (p < 0.0001), and chewed less (p < 0.0001) when any human was present with them in the round pen. Horse HR increased in the presence of the PTSD humans, even after the PTSD human left the pen (p < 0.0001). Since two of the PTSD/control human pairs were experienced with horses and two were not, a post-hoc analysis showed that horses approached quicker (p < 0.016) and stood closer (p < 0.0082) to humans who were experienced with horses. Horse HR was lower when with inexperienced humans (p < 0.0001) whereas inexperienced human HR was higher (p < 0.0001). Horse salivary cortisol did not differ between exposure to PTSD and control humans (p > 0.32). Overall, behavioural and physiological responses of horses to humans are more pronounced based on human experience with horses than whether the human is diagnosed with a mental disorder. This may be a reflection of a directness of movement associated with humans who are experienced with horses that makes the horse more attentive. It appears that horses respond more to physical cues from the human rather than emotional cues. This knowledge is important in tailoring therapy programs and justifying horse responses when interacting with a patient in a therapy setting.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium (up)  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6385  
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