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Author Zohary, D.; Tchernov, E.; Horwitz, L.K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of unconscious selection in the domestication of sheep and goats Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication J Zool Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 245 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zohary1998 Serial 6240  
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Author Clutton-Brock, J. openurl 
  Title Origins of the dog: domestication and early history Type Book Chapter
  Year 1995 Publication The Domestic Dog: Its Evolution, Behaviour and Interactions with People Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Cambridge Editor Serpell, J.A.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Clutton-Brock1995 Serial 6247  
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Author Benson-Amram, S.; Holekamp, K.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 279 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Benson-Amram2012 Serial 6266  
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Author Briefer, E.F.; Padilla de la Torre, M.; McElligott, A.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mother goats do not forget their kids' calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proc R Soc B Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 279 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Briefer2012 Serial 6282  
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Author Whiten, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication J Comp Psychol Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Whiten1998 Serial 6291  
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Author Bates, D. openurl 
  Title Fitting linear mixed models in R Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication R News Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 5 Issue Pages  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bates2005 Serial 6293  
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Author openurl 
  Title R Foundation for Statistical Computing Type Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher R Foundation for Statistical Computing Place of Publication Vienna, Austria Editor  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ ref80 Serial 6295  
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Author Zeder, M.A. openurl 
  Title Pathways to animal domestication Type Book Chapter
  Year 2011 Publication Harlan II: Biodiversity in Agriculture: Domestication, Evolution, and Sustainability Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher University of California Place of Publication Davis Editor Damania, A.; Gepts, P.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zeder2011 Serial 6316  
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Author Zentall, T.R.; Sutton, J.E.; Sherburne, L.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title True imitative learning in pigeons Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Psychol Sci Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Zentall1996 Serial 6372  
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Author Krueger., K.; Farmer, K. pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
  Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning  
  Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.
Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
 
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405  
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