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Author (up) Galef, B.G.; Laland, K.N.
Title Social Learning in Animals: Empirical Studies and Theoretical Models Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication BioScience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 55 Issue 6 Pages 489-499
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Abstract AbstractThe last two decades have seen a virtual explosion in empirical research on the role of social interactions in the development of animals' behavioral repertoires, and a similar increase in attention to formal models of social learning. Here we first review recent empirical evidence of social influences on food choice, tool use, patterns of movement, predator avoidance, mate choice, and courtship, and then consider formal models of when animals choose to copy behavior, and which other animals' behavior they copy, together with empirical tests of predictions from those models.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3568 ISBN Medium
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Notes 10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0489:Sliaes]2.0.Co;2 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6398
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Author (up) Gardner, E.L.; Engel, D.R.
Title Imitational and social facilitatory aspects of observational learning in the laboratory rat Type Journal Article
Year 1971 Publication Psychonomic Science Abbreviated Journal Psychon. Sci.
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 5-6
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Abstract Rats acquired a food-motivated leverpressing response by “observational learning” or by trial-and-error learning under conditions of social facilitation or isolation. Both the observational learning and social facilitation Ss learned faster than did the isolated trial-and-error Ss. There was no difference in speed of learning between the observational learning and social facilitation groups. It is suggested that some previous studies purporting to demonstrate observational learning may have demonstrated socially facilitated trial-and-error learning instead.
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ISSN 0033-3131 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gardner1971 Serial 6421
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Author (up) Gaunitz, C.; Fages, A.; Hanghøj, K.; Albrechtsen, A.; Khan, N.; Schubert, M.; Seguin-Orlando, A.; Owens, I.J.; Felkel, S.; Bignon-Lau, O.; de Barros Damgaard, P.; Mittnik, A.; Mohaseb, A.F.; Davoudi, H.; Alquraishi, S.; Alfarhan, A.H.; Al-Rasheid, K.A.S.; Crubézy, E.; Benecke, N.; Olsen, S.; Brown, D.; Anthony, D.; Massy, K.; Pitulko, V.; Kasparov, A.; Brem, G.; Hofreiter, M.; Mukhtarova, G.; Baimukhanov, N.; Lõugas, L.; Onar, V.; Stockhammer, P.W.; Krause, J.; Boldgiv, B.; Undrakhbold, S.; Erdenebaatar, D.; Lepetz, S.; Mashkour, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wallner, B.; Merz, V.; Merz, I.; Zaibert, V.; Willerslev, E.; Librado, P.; Outram, A.K.; Orlando, L.
Title Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
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Abstract The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5,500 ya, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient and modern horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4,000 ya to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Admin @ knut @ Serial 6212
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Author (up) Gazzola, A.; Avanzinelli, E.; Mauri, L.; Scandura, M.; Apollonio, M.
Title Temporal changes of howling in south European wolf packs Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Ital J Zool Abbreviated Journal
Volume 69 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gazzola2002 Serial 6495
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Author (up) Gehring, T.M.; VerCauteren, K.C.; Provost, M.L.; Cellar, A.C.
Title Utility of livestock-protection dogs for deterring wildlife from cattle farms Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Wildl. Res. Abbreviated Journal Wildl. Res.
Volume 37 Issue 8 Pages 715-721
Keywords bovine tuberculosis, coyote, grey wolf, livestock protection dog, mesopredators, white-tailed deer, wildlife damage management.
Abstract Context. Livestock producers worldwide are negatively affected by livestock losses because of predators and wildlife-transmitted diseases. In the western Great Lakes Region of the United States, this conflict has increased as grey wolf (Canis lupus) populations have recovered and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have served as a wildlife reservoir for bovine tuberculosis (Myobacterium bovis).Aims. We conducted field experiments on cattle farms to evaluate the effectiveness of livestock-protection dogs (LPDs) for excluding wolves, coyotes (C. latrans), white-tailed deer and mesopredators from livestock pastures.Methods. We integrated LPDs on six cattle farms (treatment) and monitored wildlife use with tracking swaths on these farms, concurrent with three control cattle farms during 2005-2008. The amount of time deer spent in livestock pastures was recorded using direct observation.Key results. Livestock pastures protected by LPDs had reduced use by these wildlife compared with control pastures not protected by LPDs. White-tailed deer spent less time in livestock pastures protected by LPDs compared with control pastures not protected by LPDs.Conclusions. Our research supports the theory that LPDs can be an effective management tool for reducing predation and disease transmission. We also demonstrate that LPDs are not limited to being used only with sheep and goats; they can also be used to protect cattle.Implications. On the basis of our findings, we support the use of LPDs as a proactive management tool that producers can implement to minimise the threat of livestock depredations and transmission of disease from wildlife to livestock. LPDs should be investigated further as a more general conservation tool for protecting valuable wildlife, such as ground-nesting birds, that use livestock pastures and are affected by predators that use these pastures.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6575
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Author (up) Gese, E.M.; Ruff, R.L.
Title Howling by coyotes (Canis latrans): variation among social classes, seasons, and pack sizes Type Journal Article
Year 1998 Publication Can J Zool Abbreviated Journal
Volume 76 Issue Pages
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gese1998 Serial 6462
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Author (up) Gholib, G.; Heistermann, M.; Agil, M.; Supriatna, I.; Purwantara, B.; Nugraha, T.P.; Engelhardt, A.
Title Comparison of fecal preservation and extraction methods for steroid hormone metabolite analysis in wild crested macaques Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Primates Abbreviated Journal Primates
Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 281-292
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Abstract Since the non-invasive field endocrinology techniques were developed, several fecal preservation and extraction methods have been established for a variety of species. However, direct adaptation of methods from previous studies for use in crested macaques should be taken with caution. We conducted an experiment to assess the accuracy and stability of fecal estrogen metabolite (E1C) and glucocorticoid metabolite (GCM) concentrations in response to several preservation parameters: (1) time lag between sample collection and fecal preservation; (2) long-term storage of fecal samples in 80% methanol (MeOH) at ambient temperature; (3) different degrees of feces drying temperature using a conventional oven; and (4) different fecal preservation techniques (i.e., freeze-drying, oven-drying, and field-friendly extraction method) and extraction solvents (methanol, ethanol, and commercial alcohol). The study used fecal samples collected from crested macaques (Macaca nigra) living in the Tangkoko Reserve, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Samples were assayed using validated E1C and GCM enzyme immunoassays. Concentrations of E1C and GCM in unprocessed feces stored at ambient temperature remained stable for up to 8 h of storage after which concentrations of both E1C and GCM changed significantly compared to controls extracted at time 0. Long-term storage in 80% MeOH at ambient temperature affected hormone concentrations significantly with concentrations of both E1C and GCM increasing after 6 and 4 months of storage, respectively. Drying fecal samples using a conventional oven at 50, 70, and 90 °C did not affect the E1C concentrations, but led to a significant decline for GCM concentrations in samples dried at 90 °C. Different fecal preservation techniques and extraction solvents provided similar results for both E1C and GCM concentrations. Our results confirm previous studies that prior to application of fecal hormone analysis in a new species, several preservation parameters should be evaluated for their effects on hormone metabolite stability. The results also provide several options for fecal preservation, extraction, and storage methods that can be selected depending on the condition of the field site and laboratory.
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ISSN 1610-7365 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gholib2018 Serial 6521
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Author (up) Giljov, A.; Karenina, K.
Title Differential roles of the right and left brain hemispheres in the social interactions of a free-ranging ungulate Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 168 Issue Pages 103959
Keywords Laterality; Hemispheric specialization; Brain asymmetry; Eye preference; Ungulate; Bovid
Abstract Despite the abundant empirical evidence on lateralized social behaviours, a clear understanding of the relative roles of two brain hemispheres in social processing is still lacking. This study investigated visual lateralization in social interactions of free-ranging European bison (Bison bonasus). The bison were more likely to display aggressive responses (such as fight and side hit), when they viewed the conspecific with the right visual field, implicating the left brain hemisphere. In contrast, the responses associated with positive social interactions (female-to-calf bonding, calf-to-female approach, suckling) or aggression inhibition (fight termination) occurred more likely when the left visual field was in use, indicating the right hemisphere advantage. The results do not support either assumptions of right-hemisphere dominance for control of various social functions or hypotheses about simple positive (approach) versus negative (withdrawal) distinction between the hemispheric roles. The discrepancy between the studies suggests that in animals, the relative roles of the hemispheres in social processing may be determined by a fine balance of emotions and motivations associated with the particular social reaction difficult to categorize for a human investigator. Our findings highlight the involvement of both brain hemispheres in the control of social behaviour.
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ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6587
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Author (up) Giljov, A.; Malashichev, Y.; Karenina, K.
Title What do wild saiga antelopes tell us about the relative roles of the two brain hemispheres in social interactions? Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume Issue Pages
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Abstract Two brain hemispheres are unequally involved in the processing of social stimuli, as demonstrated in a wide range of vertebrates. A considerable number of studies have shown the right hemisphere advantage for social processing. At the same time, an approach-withdrawal hypothesis, mainly based on experimental evidence, proposes the involvement of both brain hemispheres according to approach and withdrawal motivation. The present study aimed to test the relative roles of the two hemispheres in social responses displayed in a natural context. Visual biases, implicating hemispheric lateralization, were estimated in the social interactions of saiga antelope in the wild. In individually identified males, the left/right visual field use during approach and withdrawal responses was recorded based on the lateral head/body position, relative to the conspecific. Lateralized approach responses were investigated in three types of interactions, with left visual field bias found for chasing a rival, no bias--for attacking a rival, and right visual field bias--for pursuing a female. In two types of withdrawal responses, left visual field bias was found for retreating after fighting, while no bias was evident in fight rejecting. These findings demonstrate that neither the right hemisphere advantage nor the approach-withdrawal distinction can fully explain the patterns of lateralization observed in social behaviour. It is clear that both brain hemispheres play significant roles in social responses, while their relative contribution is likely determined by a complex set of motivational and emotional factors rather than a simple dichotomous distinction such as, for example, approach versus withdrawal motivation.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Giljov2019 Serial 6569
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Author (up) Gille, C.; Hoischen-Taubner, S.; Spiller, A.
Title Neue Reitsportmotive jenseits des klassischen Turniersports Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Sportwissenschaft Abbreviated Journal
Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 34-43
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Abstract Während die traditionellen Pferdesportdisziplinen Dressur- und Springreiten Mitglieder verlieren, haben sich weitere Pferdesportarten in Deutschland etabliert und erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebtheit. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den Hintergründen dieser Entwicklung. In einer empirischen Untersuchung wurden 1814 Reiter zu ihren Reitmotiven befragt. Mit Hilfe von Hauptkomponenten- und Clusteranalyse wurde eine Typologie gebildet, die ein differenziertes Bild der Motive verschiedener Reitergruppen ermöglicht. Während die leistungsorientierten Reiter eher in klassischen Reitsportdisziplinen vertreten sind, dominieren in moderneren Reitsportdisziplinen vor allem Genussmotive. Insgesamt entwickelt sich der Trend im Reitsport deutlich vom Drill in der Reitbahn hin zu mehr Entspannung, Erholung und Selbstverwirklichung. Der Wunsch, in der Freizeit Leistung zu bringen, sich mit anderen zu messen und Erfolg zu haben, ist nur noch für einen kleineren Teil der Pferdesportler bedeutsam. Aus der Verteilung der Motive ergeben sich neue Herausforderungen für den organisierten Reitsport, um den Spagat zwischen den Anforderungen der leistungsorientierten Sportreiter und den Erholungssuchenden zu meistern.
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ISSN 1868-1069 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Gille2011 Serial 6393
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