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Author (up) Benz, B.; Benitz, B.; Krueger, K.; Winter, D. openurl 
  Title Weniger Einstreu bei gleichem Komfort Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pferdezucht und Haltung Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 1 Issue Pages 66-71  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher AVA-Verlag-Allgäu GmbH Place of Publication Kempten Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5654  
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Author (up) Benz, B.; Münzing, C.; Krueger, K.; Winter, D. url  openurl
  Title Ethologische Untersuchung von Heuraufen in der Pferdehaltung [Ethological investigation of hayracks in equine husbandry] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Landtechnik Abbreviated Journal Landtechnik  
  Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 239-244  
  Keywords Pferdehaltung, Fressverhalten, Futterraufen [horse keeping, feeding behaviour, roughage racks]  
  Abstract Eine tiergerechte, physiologisch und anatomisch auf die Bedürfnisse der Pferde ausgerichtete

Raufutterversorgung sollte die Kaubedürfnisse und die Beschäftigungszeiten von Pferden

ausreichend berücksichtigen. Daher – und auch aufgrund des bestehenden Kostendrucks bei

Raufutter – steigt das Interesse an Raufutterraufen, durch die möglicherweise die Futteraufnahmezeiten

verlängert sowie Futterverluste minimiert werden können.

Die vorliegende Untersuchung vergleicht das Fressverhalten und die Körperhaltung von acht

Pferden beim Einsatz von drei unterschiedlichen Futterraufen mit der Bodenfütterung in Einzelboxenhaltung.

Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Einsatz von

Raufutterraufen die Futteraufnahmezeiten verlängert und somit längere Beschäftigungszeiten

für die Futteraufnahme gewährleistet werden. Außerdem konnte festgestellt werden, dass die

Pferde das Raufutter bei einer der drei untersuchten Raufen überwiegend mit natürlicher Kopf-

Hals-Haltung aufnahmen.

[Regarding the species horse, an appropriate supply of roughage should take into account the

need to chew as well as the need for occupation. In this context, and due to the current cost

pressure for hay, the interest in roughage racks increases. It is assumed that roughage racks

could help to extend the feeding time and reduce food losses.

The present study places the emphasis on the observation of the feeding behaviour of eight

horses in single horse boxes. Three different roughage racks are compared to traditional feeding

on the floor. On the basis of the results it may be concluded that the use of roughage racks

extends the feeding time and thus ensures longer occupation. In one of the three roughage

racks investigated the horses mainly eat in a natural posture of their head and neck.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5840  
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Author (up) Bernauer, K.; Kollross, H.; Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How do horses (Equus caballus) learn from observing human action? Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A previous study demonstrated that horses can learn socially from observing humans, but could not draw any conclusions about the social learning mechanisms. Here we develop this by showing horses four different human action sequences as demonstrations of how to press a button to open a feed box. We tested 68 horses aged between 3 and 12 years. 63 horses passed the habituation phase and were assigned either to the group Hand Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used a hand to press the button, Head Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used the head, Mixed Demo (N = 12) for which a squatting person used both head and hand, Foot Demo (N = 12) in which a standing person used a foot, or No Demo (N = 13) in which horses did not receive a demonstration. 44 horses reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively, 40 of these were 75% of the Demo group horses and four horses were 31% of the No Demo group horses. Horses not reaching the learning criterion approached the human experimenters more often than those who did. Significantly more horses used their head to press the button no matter which demonstration they received. However, in the Foot Demo group four horses consistently preferred to use a hoof and two switched between hoof and head use. After the Mixed Demo the horses' actions were more diverse. The results indicate that only a few horses copy behaviours when learning socially from humans. A few may learn through observational conditioning, as some appeared to adapt to demonstrated actions in the course of reaching the learning criterion. Most horses learn socially through enhancement, using humans to learn where, and which aspect of a mechanism has to be manipulated, and by applying individual trial and error learning to reach their goal.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bernauer2019 Serial 6590  
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Author (up) Esch, L.; Wöhr, C.; Erhard, M.; Krueger, K. doi  openurl
  Title Horses’ (Equus Caballus) Laterality, Stress Hormones, and Task Related Behavior in Innovative Problem-Solving Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Animals Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 265  
  Keywords innovative behavior; brain lateralization; glucocorticoid metabolites; behavioral traits; equine cognition  
  Abstract Domesticated horses are constantly confronted with novel tasks. A recent study on anecdotal data indicates that some are innovative in dealing with such tasks. However, innovative behavior in horses has not previously been investigated under experimental conditions. In this study, we investigated whether 16 horses found an innovative solution when confronted with a novel feeder. Moreover, we investigated whether innovative behavior in horses may be affected by individual aspects such as: age, sex, size, motor and sensory laterality, fecal stress hormone concentrations (GCMs), and task-related behavior. Our study revealed evidence for 25% of the horses being capable of innovative problem solving for operating a novel feeder. Innovative horses of the present study were active, tenacious, and may be considered to have a higher inhibitory control, which was revealed by their task related behavior. Furthermore, they appeared to be emotional, reflected by high baseline GCM concentrations and a left sensory and motor laterality. These findings may contribute to the understanding of horses’ cognitive capacities to deal with their environment and calls for enriched environments in sports and leisure horse management.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Esch2019 Serial 6570  
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Author (up) Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.; Byrne, R. pdf  url
doi  openurl
  Title Visual laterality in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) interacting with humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 13 Issue Pages 229-238  
  Keywords Horse – Laterality – Eye preference – Emotion – Vision  
  Abstract Most horses have a side on which they are easier to handle and a direction they favour when working on a circle, and recent studies have suggested a correlation between emotion and visual laterality when horses observe inanimate objects. As such lateralisation could provide important clues regarding the horse’s cognitive processes, we investigated whether horses also show laterality in association with people. We gave horses the choice of entering a chute to left or right, with and without the passive, non-interactive presence of a person unknown to them. The left eye was preferred for scanning under both conditions, but significantly more so when a person was present. Traditionally, riders handle horses only from the left, so we repeated the experiment with horses specifically trained on both sides. Again, there was a consistent preference for left eye scanning in the presence of a person, whether known to the horses or not. We also examined horses interacting with a person, using both traditionally and bilaterally trained horses. Both groups showed left eye preference for viewing the person, regardless of training and test procedure. For those horses tested under both passive and interactive conditions, the left eye was preferred significantly more during interaction. We suggest that most horses prefer to use their left eye for assessment and evaluation, and that there is an emotional aspect to the choice which may be positive or negative, depending on the circumstances. We believe these results have important practical implications and that emotional laterality should be taken into account in training methods.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4953  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. pdf  openurl
  Title Ecology and evolution of equine cognitive abilities Type Conference Article
  Year 2008 Publication IESM 2008 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The cognitive abilities of social ungulates, in particular horses, have widely been neglected. Preliminary results suggest that horses are capable of social cognition which they acquire through social learning. They gain information from the observation of the interaction of a conspecific and a human experimenter, and adjust their own behaviour towards the experimenter with respect to the observed horse"s reaction and relative dominance status (Krueger and Heinze, 2007). Horses are a highly social species that still exists in different evolutionary stages: domestic horses, feral horses and wild horses (Przewalski horses). Additionally, domestic and wild horses differ in their individual social behaviour. For example, in social interactions Przewalski horses appear to act significantly more aggressively than domestic horses. Therefore studies on horses are particularly suitable to investigate whether convergent social evolution favours convergent cognitive evolution. By a comparative study concerning their reasoning abilities in a specific situation, we will attempt to determine the influence of domestication and feralisation on the evolution of social cognition and to investigate possible differences in their abilities to cope with stressful situations. We started to observe the behaviour of domestic and wild horses, in particular during the integration into new social groups, especially in relation with their knowledge of the social structure of new groups and their own relative social status. Selected agonistic interactions will be measured and statistically evaluated. Additionally, the stress level of the horses will be determined by an analysis of stress hormone levels, particularly cortisol metabolites, in plasma, saliva and faeces.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Flauger, B. Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference IESM 2008  
  Notes Poster IESM 2008 Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4500  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Aggressionslevel und Platzangebot bei Pferden (Equus caballus) [ Aggression level and enclosure size in horses (Equus caballus)] Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Pferdeheilkunde Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 495-504  
  Keywords Aggression / Verletzungsgefahr / Sozialverhalten / Gruppenhaltung / Pferdehaltung / Eingliederung von Pferden [aggression / injury risk / social behaviour / group housing / horse management / introduction of horses]  
  Abstract Viele Pferdebesitzer bevorzugen aus Angst vor aggressiven Interaktionen und Verletzungsgefahr der Tiere untereinander die Einzelhaltung, obwohl von Tierschutzorganisationen die Gruppenhaltung für Pferde empfohlen wird. In dieser Studie beobachteten wir während des alltäglichen Soziallebens als auch bei der Eingliederung von neuen Gruppenmitgliedern das Sozialverhalten, insbesondere das Aggressionsverhalten, von elf Gruppen domestizierter Pferde (Equus caballus) verschiedener Größe und Zusammensetzung. Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens hatten die Gruppe und der Paddock-Typ (Gras / kein Gras) keinen Einfluss auf die Verhaltensweisen, wohingegen die Paddockgröße unter 10000 m2 einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die submissiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) und einen nicht signifikanten Einfluss auf die aggressiven Verhaltensweisen (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081) hatte. Allerdings verringerten sich sowohl die aggressiven als auch die submissiven Verhaltensweisen mit steigendem Platzangebot bis zu 10000 m2 (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=56; aggressive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.313, P = 0.019; submissive Verhaltensweisen: r = -0.328, P = 0.014). Während den Eingliederungen reduzierten sich die Aggressionen pro Stunde mit der Vergrößerung des Platzangebotes (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034). Dies zeigte sich noch deutlicher, wenn Beobachtungen mit einem Platzangebot von über 10000 m2 ausgeschlos- sen wurden (Spearman rank Korrelation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). Während des alltäglichen Soziallebens näherte sich der Aggressionslevel der Nulllinie an, wenn das Platzangebot pro Pferd mehr als 331 m2 betrug. Deshalb empfehlen wir zur Reduzierung des Aggressionslevels und des Verletzungsrisikos von sozial gehaltenen Pferdegruppen ein Platzangebot von mindestens 331 m2 pro Pferd.

[Even though animal welfare organisations propose group housing for horse welfare, many owners stable horses individually for fear of aggressive interactions and injury risks. In the present study we observed social behaviour, and especially aggressiveness, in eleven domestic horse groups (Equus caballus) of different size and composition, in basic social situations and when new group members were introduced. During basic social situations, the group and the type of paddock (grass / no grass) had no effect on any of the behaviours, where- as the enclosure size below 10,000 m2 had a significant effect on submissive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-2.061, P=0.044) and an insignificant effect on aggressive behaviour (GzLM; n=56; t=-1.782, P=0.081). However, aggressive and submissive behaviour dimi- nished with the increase of enclosure sizes up to 10,000 m2 (Spearman rank correlation; n = 56; aggressive behaviour: r = -0.313, P=0.019; submissive behaviour: r=-0.328, P=0.014). During introductions, aggression levels per hour decreased with any increase of enclosure size (Spearman rank correlation; n=28; r=-0.402, P=0.034) and even more when enclosure sizes above 10,000 m2 were excluded (Spearman rank correlation; n=23; r=-0.549, P=0.007). During basic social situations the aggression level approached zero when the space allowance was more than 331 m2 per horse. We therefore recommend keeping horse groups in an enclosure with at least 331 m2 per horse to reduce aggression and injuries.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5714  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K. pdf  openurl
  Title Social feeding decisions in horses (Equus caballus) Type Conference Article
  Year 2012 Publication Proceedings of the 2. International Equine Science Meeting Abbreviated Journal Proc. 2. Int. Equine. Sci. Mtg  
  Volume in press Issue Pages  
  Keywords Feeding decision; Horse; Rank; Social behaviour  
  Abstract Like many other herbivores equids feed on rather evenly distributed resources. Especially in ruminants several studies have proved the influence of social organisations, rank, sex and the depletion of feeding sites on the feeding behaviour of individuals. However, it is not yet understood whether social aspects affect horses´ feeding decisions. Horses roam on vast habitats with constantly changing vegetation. In non-competitive situations domestic horses tend to return to the same feeding site until it is overgrazed. Whereas, for competition over limited food the social status of the individuals appears to be important. Curiosity about the influence of social rank and different social feeding conditions on the horses´ feeding decisions between two buckets, equally filled with high-quality surplus food, led us to create the test situation described here. The observer horses were alternately tested with a dominant and a subordinate demonstrator placed in one of three different positions. We conclude that domestic horses use cognitive strategic decision making in order to decide where to feed in a social feeding situation. When possible they tend to return to the same, continuously supplied feeding site and switch to an “avoidance tendency” when another horse is already feeding from it or in the presence of a dominant horse. Thus the position and the social rank of conspecifics affect the feeding strategy of horses.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Flauger, B. Thesis  
  Publisher Xenophon Publishing Place of Publication Wald Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 978-3-9808134-26 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5581  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K.; Gerhards, H.; Möstl, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Simplified method to measure glucocorticoid metabolites in faeces of horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Veterinary Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Vet Res Comm  
  Volume 34 Issue 2 Pages 185-195  
  Keywords ACTH challenge; enzyme immunoassay; stress behaviour; cortisol  
  Abstract Glucocorticoids or their metabolites can be measured in several body fluids or excreta, including plasma, saliva, urine and faeces. In recent years the measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites (GCMs) in faeces has gained increasing attention, because of its suitability for wild populations. In horses, however, the group-specific enzyme immunoassay described so far has a limited racticability due to its complex extraction procedure. Therefore, we tested the applicability of

other enzyme immunoassays for glucocorticoid metabolites. The present study clearly proved that an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for 11-oxoetiocholanolone using 11-oxoetiocholanolone-17-CMO: BSA (3α,11-oxo-A EIA) as antigen showed high amounts of immunoreactive substances. Therefore it was possible to use just a small amount of the supernatant of a methanolic suspension of faeces. The results

correlated well with the already described method for measuring GCMs in horse faeces, i.e. analysing the samples with an EIA after a two step clean up procedure of the samples (Merl et al. 2000). In addition, the 3α,11-oxo-A EIA has the advantage of providing a bigger difference between baseline values and peak values after ACTH stimulation. The new assay increased the accuracy of the test,

lowered the expenses per sample, and storing samples at room temperature after collection was less critical than with other assays investigated in our study. This is a big advantage both in the field of wildlife management of equids and in the field of equestrian sports and it shows the importance of choosing an assay which is in good accordance with the metabolites excreted in a given species.
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5073  
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Author (up) Flauger, B.; Krueger, K.; Gerhards, H.; Moestl, E. isbn  openurl
  Title Measurement of glucocorticoid metabolites in horse faeces: the validation of different group specific enzymeimmunoassays and extraction methods. Type Book Chapter
  Year 2009 Publication Proceeding of the 102. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Zoologische Gesellschaft (DZG). Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 166  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Dt. Zoologische Ges Place of Publication München Editor Cremer,S.;Schrempf,A.;Heinze,J.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-00-028368-0 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5718  
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