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Author (up) Bernauer, K.; Kollross, H.; Schuetz, A.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.
Title How do horses (Equus caballus) learn from observing human action? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 23 Issue Pages 1-9
Keywords
Abstract A previous study demonstrated that horses can learn socially from observing humans, but could not draw any conclusions about the social learning mechanisms. Here we develop this by showing horses four different human action sequences as demonstrations of how to press a button to open a feed box. We tested 68 horses aged between 3 and 12 years. 63 horses passed the habituation phase and were assigned either to the group Hand Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used a hand to press the button, Head Demo (N = 13) for which a kneeling person used the head, Mixed Demo (N = 12) for which a squatting person used both head and hand, Foot Demo (N = 12) in which a standing person used a foot, or No Demo (N = 13) in which horses did not receive a demonstration. 44 horses reached the learning criterion of opening the feeder twenty times consecutively, 40 of these were 75% of the Demo group horses and four horses were 31% of the No Demo group horses. Horses not reaching the learning criterion approached the human experimenters more often than those who did. Significantly more horses used their head to press the button no matter which demonstration they received. However, in the Foot Demo group four horses consistently preferred to use a hoof and two switched between hoof and head use. After the Mixed Demo the horses' actions were more diverse. The results indicate that only a few horses copy behaviours when learning socially from humans. A few may learn through observational conditioning, as some appeared to adapt to demonstrated actions in the course of reaching the learning criterion. Most horses learn socially through enhancement, using humans to learn where, and which aspect of a mechanism has to be manipulated, and by applying individual trial and error learning to reach their goal.
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bernauer2019 Serial 6590
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Author (up) Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.; Byrne, R.
Title Visual laterality in the domestic horse (Equus caballus) interacting with humans Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 13 Issue Pages 229-238
Keywords Horse – Laterality – Eye preference – Emotion – Vision
Abstract Most horses have a side on which they are easier to handle and a direction they favour when working on a circle, and recent studies have suggested a correlation between emotion and visual laterality when horses observe inanimate objects. As such lateralisation could provide important clues regarding the horse’s cognitive processes, we investigated whether horses also show laterality in association with people. We gave horses the choice of entering a chute to left or right, with and without the passive, non-interactive presence of a person unknown to them. The left eye was preferred for scanning under both conditions, but significantly more so when a person was present. Traditionally, riders handle horses only from the left, so we repeated the experiment with horses specifically trained on both sides. Again, there was a consistent preference for left eye scanning in the presence of a person, whether known to the horses or not. We also examined horses interacting with a person, using both traditionally and bilaterally trained horses. Both groups showed left eye preference for viewing the person, regardless of training and test procedure. For those horses tested under both passive and interactive conditions, the left eye was preferred significantly more during interaction. We suggest that most horses prefer to use their left eye for assessment and evaluation, and that there is an emotional aspect to the choice which may be positive or negative, depending on the circumstances. We believe these results have important practical implications and that emotional laterality should be taken into account in training methods.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4953
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Author (up) Farmer, K.; Krüger, K.; Byrne, R.W.; Marr, I.
Title Sensory laterality in affiliative interactions in domestic horses and ponies (Equus caballus) Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 21 Issue 5 Pages 631-637
Keywords
Abstract Many studies have been carried out into both motor and sensory laterality of horses in agonistic and stressful situations. Here we examine sensory laterality in affiliative interactions within four groups of domestic horses and ponies (N = 31), living in stable social groups, housed at a single complex close to Vienna, Austria, and demonstrate for the first time a significant population preference for the left side in affiliative approaches and interactions. No effects were observed for gender, rank, sociability, phenotype, group, or age. Our results suggest that right hemisphere specialization in horses is not limited to the processing of stressful or agonistic situations, but rather appears to be the norm for processing in all social interactions, as has been demonstrated in other species including chicks and a range of vertebrates. In domestic horses, hemispheric specialization for sensory input appears not to be based on a designation of positive versus negative, but more on the perceived need to respond quickly and appropriately in any given situation.
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ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Farmer2018 Serial 6386
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Farmer, K.; Heinze, J.
Title The effects of age, rank and neophobia on social learning in horses Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 645-655
Keywords Horse; Social learning; Sociality; Ecology; Social relationships
Abstract Social learning is said to meet the demands of complex environments in which individuals compete over resources and co-operate to share resources. Horses (Equus caballus) were thought to lack social learning skills because they feed on homogenously distributed resources with few reasons for conflict. However, the horse’s social environment is complex, which raises the possibility that its capacity for social transfer of feeding behaviour has been underestimated. We conducted a social learning experiment using 30 socially kept horses of different ages. Five horses, one from each group, were chosen as demonstrators, and the remaining 25 horses were designated observers. Observers from each group were allowed to watch their group demonstrator opening a feeding apparatus. We found that young, low ranking, and more exploratory horses learned by observing older members of their own group, and the older the horse, the more slowly it appeared to learn. Social learning may be an adaptive specialisation to the social environment. Older animals may avoid the potential costs of acquiring complex and potentially disadvantageous feeding behaviours from younger group members. We argue that horses show social learning in the context of their social ecology, and that research procedures must take such contexts into account. Misconceptions about the horse’s sociality may have hampered earlier studies.
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Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5737
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Flauger, B.; Farmer, K.; Hemelrijk, C.
Title Movement initiation in groups of feral horses Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav. Process.
Volume 103 Issue Pages 91-101
Keywords Horse; Equus ferus caballus; Distributed leadership; Herding; Departure; Rank
Abstract Abstract Herds of ungulates, flocks of birds, swarms of insects and schools of fish move in coordinated groups. Computer models show that only one or very few animals are needed to initiate and direct movement. To investigate initiation mechanisms further, we studied two ways in which movement can be initiated in feral horses: herding, and departure from the group. We examined traits affecting the likelihood of a horse initiating movement i.e. social rank, affiliative relationships, spatial position, and social network. We also investigated whether group members join a movement in dominance rank order. Our results show that whereas herding is exclusive to alpha males, any group member may initiate movement by departure. Social bonds, the number of animals interacted with, and the spatial position were not significantly associated with movement initiation. We did not find movement initiation by departure to be exclusive to any type of individual. Instead we find evidence for a limited form of distributed leadership, with higher ranking animals being followed more often.
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ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5738
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Flauger, B.; Farmer, K.; Maros, K.
Title Horses (Equus caballus) use human local enhancement cues and adjust to human attention Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 187-201
Keywords Human–horse interaction – Horse – Attention-reading – Position – Familiarity
Abstract This study evaluates the horse (Equus caballus) use of human local enhancement cues and reaction to human attention when making feeding decisions. The superior performance of dogs in observing human states of attention suggests this ability evolved with domestication. However, some species show an improved ability to read human cues through socialization and training. We observed 60 horses approach a bucket with feed in a three-way object-choice task when confronted with (a) an unfamiliar or (b) a familiar person in 4 different situations: (1) squatting behind the bucket, facing the horse (2) standing behind the bucket, facing the horse (3) standing behind the bucket in a back-turned position, gazing away from the horse and (4) standing a few meters from the bucket in a distant, back-turned position, again gazing away from the horse. Additionally, postures 1 and 2 were tested both with the person looking permanently at the horse and with the person alternating their gaze between the horse and the bucket. When the person remained behind the correct bucket, it was chosen significantly above chance. However, when the test person was turned and distant from the buckets, the horses’ performance deteriorated. In the turned person situations, the horses approached a familiar person and walked towards their focus of attention significantly more often than with an unfamiliar person. Additionally, in the squatting and standing person situations, some horses approached the person before approaching the correct bucket. This happened more with a familiar person. We therefore conclude that horses can use humans as a local enhancement cue independently of their body posture or gaze consistency when the persons remain close to the food source and that horses seem to orientate on the attention of familiar more than of unfamiliar persons. We suggest that socialization and training improve the ability of horses to read human cues.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5178
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K.
Title Equine Cognition Type Book Chapter
Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-11
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Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6181
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Author (up) Krueger, K; Farmer, K.
Title Laterality in the Horse [Lateralität beim Pferd ] Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication mensch & pferd international Abbreviated Journal mup
Volume 4 Issue Pages 160-167
Keywords Laterality, horse, information processing, training, welfare, human-animal interaction
Abstract Horses are one-sided, not only on a motor level, but they also prefer to use one eye, ear or nostril over the other under particular circumstances. Horses usually prefer using the left eye to observe novel objects and humans. This preference is more marked in emotional situations and when confronted with unknown persons. Thus the horse’s visual laterality provides a good option for assessing its mental state during training or in human-horse interactions. A strong preference for the left eye may signal that a horse cannot deal with certain training situations or is emotionally affected by a particular person.

Pferde benutzen für die Begutachtung von Objekten und Menschen bevorzugt eine bestimmte Nüster, ein Ohr oder ein Auge. So betrachten die meisten Pferde Objekte und Menschen mit dem linken Auge. Die Lateralitätsforschung erklärt diese sensorische Lateralität mit der Verarbeitung von Informationen unterschiedlicher Qualität in verschiedenen Gehirnhälften und zeigt auf, dass positive und negative emotionale Informationen sowie soziale Sachverhalte mit dem linken Auge aufgenommen und vorwiegend an die rechte Gehirnhälfte weitergegeben werden. In diesem Zusammenhang ermöglicht die visuelle Lateralität, den Gemütszustand des Pferdes im Training und im therapeutischen Fördereinsatz zu erkennen und zu berücksichtigen.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5444
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Author (up) Krueger., K.; Farmer, K.
Title Social learning in Horses: Differs from individual learning only in the learning stimulus and not in the learning mechanisms Type Abstract
Year 2018 Publication 14th Meeting of the Internatinoal Society for Equitation Science Abbreviated Journal 14th Meeting ISES
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords horse; individual learning; learning mechanisms; learning stimuli; social learning
Abstract Equine welfare can be enhanced by applying species specific training. This may incorporate social learning, as horses are highly social and social stimuli are of primary importance. Social learning is comparable to individual learning in its learning mechanisms, differing primarily in the way it is stimulated. Our initial study showed that horses of different breeds (N = 38) follow humans after observing other horses doing so, but only if the observed horse was familiar to and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's exact test: N = 12, P = 0.003). A second study showed that horses and ponies (N = 25) learned to pull a rope to open a feeding apparatus after observing demonstrations by conspecifics, again, only if the demonstrating horse was older and higher ranking than the observer (Fisher's combination test, N = 3, v2 = 27.71, p = 0.006). Our third approach showed that horses and ponies (N = 24) learned to press a switch to open a feeding apparatus after observing a familiar person (GzLM: N = 24, z = 2.33, P = 0.02). Most recently, we confronted horses and ponies (N = 50) with persons demonstrating different techniques for opening a feeding apparatus. In this study we investigated whether the horses would copy the demonstrators' techniques or apply their own. Here only some horses copied the technique, and most of the successful learners used their mouths irrespective of the demonstrators' postures (Chi Square Test: N = 40, df = 2, &#967;2 = 31.4, p < 0.001). In all the approaches social stimuli elicited learning processes in the test horses, while only a few individuals in the control groups mastered the tasks by individual learning. The following behaviour observed in the initial study may have been facilitated by a social stimuli (social facilitation), and the opening of the feed boxes in the subsequent studies appear to be mostly the result of enhancement (social enhancement). Some horses may have used the social stimuli at first and continued their learning process by individual trial and error. However, the horses were also selective in whom and some in how to copy. This may have been conditioned (socially conditioned) or the result of simple forms of reasoning on the reliability of the particular information provided by demonstrators of certain social ranks or social positions, as high ranking and familiar horses and familiar persons were copied and some imitated exactly.

Lay person message: Traditional riding instructions suggest that horses learn by observing other horses. For example, older, more experienced driving horses are used for initial training of young driving horses. We have shown that horses indeed use learning stimuli provided by other horse, as well as by humans. Horses readily accept stimuli observed in high ranking and familiar horses, and familiar persons. Such stimuli elicit learning processes which are comparable to individual learning. We suggest applying social learning whenever possible, as it is much faster and less stressful than individual learning, where learners experience negative outcomes in trial and error learning.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6405
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Author (up) Marr, I.; Bauer, T.; Farmer, K.; Krueger, K.
Title Gibt die sensorische Lateralität im Objekttest Aufschluss über das Interieur, den aktuellen Gemütszustand, oder den Trainingszustand der Pferde? Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication 33. FFP-Jahrestagung Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
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Abstract Vor dem obersten Ziel der klassischen Ausbildungsskala für Pferde, die Versammlung, steht das Geraderichten. Ein jedes Pferd ist jedoch von Geburt an asymmetrisch, also schief. Hinter dieser Schiefe verbirgt sich nicht nur die natürliche Schiefe (asymmetrische muskuläre Entwicklung der beiden Körperhälften), die von Geburt an zu beobachten ist, sondern auch die sensorische und motorische Lateralität, also dem ungleichmäßigen Gebrauch der rechten oder linken Sinnesorgane sowie Gliedmaßen, der sich mit der Reifung des Gehirns entwickelt. Alle drei müssen als eigenständige Faktoren, die sich gegenseitig beeinflussen, gesehen werden (Krüger 2014). Um den Weg des Geraderichtens zu erleichtern, sollte in der Ausbildung eines Pferdes nicht nur an der natürlichen Schiefe gearbeitet werden, sondern auch die sensorische und motorische Lateralität beachtet werden um den Prozess des Geraderichtens für das Pferd zu erleichtern. Die sensorische und motorische Lateralität resultiert aus der Aufgabenteilung/Spezialisierung beider Gehirnhälften (Hemisphären) (Rogers 2010). Die rechte Hemisphäre ist dabei für die Verarbeitung von Emotionen (z.B. Angst, Aggression, Freude, Zufriedenheit) sowie für lebenserhaltende Spontanreaktionen zuständig. Die linke Hemisphäre ist für die rationale Verarbeitung von Informationen essentiell (Adolphs et al. 1996, Rogers 2010, Austin und Rogers 2012, De Boyer Des Roches et al. 2008, Demaree et al. 2005, Austin und Rogers 2014). Rückschlüsse auf die Informationsverarbeitung lassen sich über die Beobachtung der verwendeten Sinnesorgane (Ohren und Augen) ziehen, die kontralateral mit den Großhirnhemisphären verbunden sind (Brooks et al. 1999). Es wird vermutet, dass Stress zu einer verstärkten Informationsverarbeitung durch die rechte Großhirnhemisphäre führt (Rogers 2010, Schultheiss et al. 2009). Diese konnte auch in ersten Untersuchungen am Pferd bestätigt werden (unveröffentlichte Daten). Forscher, die den einseitigen Gebrauch von rechten und linken Gliedmaßen (motorische Lateralität) bei Menschen und Tieren untersuchten, zeigten weiterhin Zusammenhänge zur Emotionalität und Reaktivität (McGreevy und Thomson 2006, Rogers 2009, Austin und Rogers 2012, Deesing und Grandin 2014). Die Tendenz zum einseitigen Gebrauch der Gliedmaßen gibt Hinweise auf den „Cognitive Bias“ (= individuelle, kognitive Verzerrung der Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung von Informationen ins Positive oder Negative) und steht im Zusammenhang mit der persönlichen Neigung auf Stressfaktoren zu reagieren (zusammengefasst von Rogers 2010). Die sensorische Lateralität ändert sich jedoch schneller und situationsgebundener als die motorische Lateralität. Sie wird mittels Objekttests bestimmt, die ebenfalls verwendet werden können um die Reaktivität und Emotionalität zu untersuchen. Für eine objektivere Beurteilung des Interieurs eines Pferdes ist daher zu überlegen, ob die sensorische Lateralität als objektiver Parameter integriert werden kann, welchen Einflüssen diese unterliegt und mit welchen Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen sie korreliert. Wie in der Studie von Farmer et al. (2010) dargestellt werden konnte, zeigten bilateral trainierte Pferde eine weniger stark ausgeprägte Präferenz für die linken Sinnesorgane als traditionell trainierte Pferde in Tests mit Personen (ohne Interaktion). Es stellt sich daher die Frage, ob diese Beobachtung ein Resultat von langjährigem Training ist oder ob es sich bereits nach wenigen Wochen Training einstellt sowie ob solche Entwicklungen auch bei Objekten beobachtet werden können.

Für die erste Untersuchung ergaben sich daher in dieser Studie folgende Fragstellungen: Sind die Ergebnisse eines Objekttests mit Evaluierung der sensorischen Lateralität hinsichtlich der Lateralität wiederholbar? Denn, sollte es möglich sein mittels der sensorische Lateralität auf bestimmte

Persönlichkeitsmerkmale rückschließen zu können, so muss diese genauso stabil und reproduzierbar sein, wie die betreffenden Persönlichkeitsmerkmale. Unterscheiden sich Pferde hinsichtlich ihrer Lateralität in Objekttests, die bereits intensiv gleichmäßig beidseitig trainiert wurden, von Pferden, bei denen weniger Augenmerk auf gleichmäßiges beidseitiges Training gelegt wurde? Kann die Lateralität in Objekttests mit einer definierten gleichmäßigen beidseitigen Trainingsmethode beeinflusst werden? In welche Richtung verschiebt sich gegebenenfalls die Lateralität? Beeinflusst das Alter gegebenenfalls das Ausmaß von Veränderungen, da sich die sensorische Lateralität mit der Reifung des Gehirns entwickelt?
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5961
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