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Author (up) Barton, R.A.; Byrne, R.W.; Whiten, A.
Title Ecology, feeding competition and social structure in baboons Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology Abbreviated Journal Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol.
Volume 38 Issue 5 Pages 321-329
Keywords Key words Ecology – Competition – Group size – Baboons
Abstract Predictions of the model of van Schaik (1989) of female-bonding in primates are tested by systematically comparing the ecology, level of within-group contest competition for food (WGC), and patterns of social behaviour found in two contrasting baboon populations. Significant differences were found in food distribution (percentage of the diet from clumped sources), feeding supplant rates and grooming patterns. In accord with the model, the tendencies of females to affiliate and form coalitions with one another, and to be philopatric, were strongest where ecological conditions promoted WGC. Group fission in the population with strong WGC was “horizontal” with respect to female dominance rank, and associated with female-female aggression during a period of elevated feeding competition. In contrast, where WGC was low, females' grooming was focused on adult males rather than other females. Recent evidence suggests that group fission here is initiated by males, tends to result in the formation of one-male groups, and is not related to feeding competition but to male-male competition for mates. An ecological model of baboon social structure is presented which incorporates the effects of female-female competition, male-male competition, and predation pressure. The model potentially accounts for wide variability in group size, group structure and social relationships within the genus Papio. Socio-ecological convergence between common baboons and hamadryas baboons, however, may be limited in some respects by phylogenetic inertia.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 807
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Author (up) Bates, L.A.; Byrne, R.W.
Title Creative or created: Using anecdotes to investigate animal cognition Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Methods Abbreviated Journal Methods
Volume 42 Issue 1 Pages 12-21
Keywords Anecdote; Creativity; Intelligence; Deception; Innovation; African elephant
Abstract In non-human animals, creative behaviour occurs spontaneously only at low frequencies, so is typically missed by standardised observational methods. Experimental approaches have tended to rely overly on paradigms from child development or adult human cognition, which may be inappropriate for species that inhabit very different perceptual worlds and possess quite different motor capacities than humans. The analysis of anecdotes offers a solution to this impasse, provided certain conditions are met. To be reliable, anecdotes must be recorded immediately after observation, and only the records of scientists experienced with the species and the individuals concerned should be used. Even then, interpretation of a single record is always ambiguous, and analysis is feasible only when collation of multiple records shows that a behaviour pattern occurs repeatedly under similar circumstances. This approach has been used successfully to study a number of creative capacities of animals: the distribution, nature and neural correlates of deception across the primate order; the occurrence of teaching in animals; and the neural correlates of several aptitudes--in birds, foraging innovation, and in primates, innovation, social learning and tool-use. Drawing on these approaches, we describe the use of this method to investigate a new problem, the cognition of the African elephant, a species whose sheer size and evolutionary distance from humans renders the conventional methods of comparative psychology of little use. The aim is both to chart the creative cognitive capacities of this species, and to devise appropriate experimental methods to confirm and extend previous findings.
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ISSN 1046-2023 ISBN Medium
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Notes also special issue: Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Creativity: A Toolkit Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6185
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Author (up) Bates, L.A.; Sayialel, K.N.; Njiraini, N.W.; Poole, J.H.; Moss, C.J.; Byrne, R.W.
Title African elephants have expectations about the locations of out-of-sight family members Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol Lett
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 34-36
Keywords elephants, olfaction, urine, individual recognition
Abstract Monitoring the location of conspecifics may be important to social mammals. Here, we use an expectancy-violation paradigm to test the ability of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) to keep track of their social companions from olfactory cues. We presented elephants with samples of earth mixed with urine from female conspecifics that were either kin or unrelated to them, and either unexpected or highly predictable at that location. From behavioural measurements of the elephants' reactions, we show that African elephants can recognize up to 17 females and possibly up to 30 family members from cues present in the urine-earth mix, and that they keep track of the location of these individuals in relation to themselves.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4332
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Animal imitation Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Current Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages R111-R114
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4735
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Culture in great apes: using intricate complexity in feeding skills to trace the evolutionary origin of human technical prowess Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Phil. Trans. Biol. Sci.
Volume 362 Issue 1480 Pages 577-585
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Abstract Geographical cataloguing of traits, as used in human ethnography, has led to the description of “culture” in some non-human great apes. Culture, in these terms, is detected as a pattern of local ignorance resulting from environmental constraints on knowledge transmission. However, in many cases, the geographical variations may alternatively be explained by ecology. Social transmission of information can reliably be identified in many other animal species, by experiment or distinctive patterns in distribution; but the excitement of detecting culture in great apes derives from the possibility of understanding the evolution of cumulative technological culture in humans. Given this interest, I argue that great ape research should concentrate on technically complex behaviour patterns that are ubiquitous within a local population; in these cases, a wholly non-social ontogeny is highly unlikely. From this perspective, cultural transmission has an important role in the elaborate feeding skills of all species of great ape, in conveying the “gist” or organization of skills. In contrast, social learning is unlikely to be responsible for local stylistic differences, which are apt to reflect sensitive adaptations to ecology.
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Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 3527
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Imitation of novel complex actions: What does the evidence from animals mean? Type Book Chapter
Year 2002 Publication Advances in the Study of Behavior Abbreviated Journal Adv Stud Behav
Volume 31 Issue Pages 77-105
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Abstract Summary Underlying the various behaviors that are classified as imitation, there may be several distinct mechanisms, differing in adaptive function, cognitive basis, and computational power. Experiments reporting “true motor imitation” in animals do not as yet give evidence of production learning by imitation; instead, contextual imitation can explain their data, and this can be explained by a simple mechanism (response facilitation) which matches known neural findings. When imitation serves a function in social mimicry, which applies to a wide range of phenomena from neonatal imitation in humans and great apes to pair-bonding in some bird species, the fidelity of the behavioral match is crucial. Learning of novel behavior can potentially be achieved by matching the outcome of a model's action, and it is argued that vocal imitation by birds is a clear example of this method (which is sometimes called emulation). Alternatively, the behavior itself may be perceived in terms of actions that the observer can perform, and thus it may be copied. If the imitation is linear and stringlike (action level), following the surface form rather than the underlying plan, then its utility for learning new instrumental methods is limited. However, the underlying plan of hierarchically organized behavior is visible in output behavior, in subtle but detectable ways, and imitation could instead be based on this organization (program level), extracted automatically by string parsing. Currently, the most likely candidates for such capacities are all great apes. It is argued that this ability to perceive the underlying plan of action, in addition to allowing highly flexible imitation of novel instrumental methods, may have resulted in the competence to understand the intentions (theory of mind) of others.
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Publisher Academic Press Place of Publication San Diego Editor Snowdon, C. T.; Roper, T. J.;Rosenblatt,J. S.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 746
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title How monkeys find their way: leadership, coordination, and cognitive maps of African baboons. Type Book Chapter
Year 2000 Publication On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 491518
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Publisher Chicago University Press Place of Publication Chicago Editor Boinski, S.; Garber, P.A.
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Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5146
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Imitation without intentionality. Using string parsing to copy the organization of behaviour Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.
Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 63-72
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Abstract A theory of imitation is proposed, string parsing, which separates the copying of behavioural organization by observation from an understanding of the cause of its effectiveness. In string parsing, recurring patterns in the visible stream of behaviour are detected and used to build a statistical sketch of the underlying hierarchical structure. This statistical sketch may in turn aid the subsequent comprehension of cause and effect. Three cases of social learning of relatively complex skills are examined, as potential cases of imitation by string parsing. Understanding the basic requirements for successful string parsing helps to resolve the conflict between mainly negative reports of imitation in experiments and more positive evidence from natural conditions. Since string parsing does not depend on comprehension of the intentions of other agents or the everyday physics of objects, separate tests of these abilities are needed even in animals shown to learn by imitation.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3162
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.
Title Do larger brains mean greater intelligence? Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain Sci.
Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 696-697
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Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1469-1825 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6171
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.; Bates, L.A.
Title Why are animals cognitive? Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 16 Issue 12 Pages R445-8
Keywords Animals; Arachnida/physiology; *Association Learning; *Behavior, Animal; *Cognition; Cooperative Behavior; Falconiformes/physiology; Pan troglodytes/physiology; Parrots/physiology; Passeriformes/physiology
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Address Centre for Social Learning and Cognitive Evolution, and Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, Fife KY16 9JP, Scotland
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16781995 Approved no
Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 4708
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