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Author (up) Austin, N.P.; Rogers, L.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Lateralization of agonistic and vigilance responses in Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 151 Issue 0 Pages 43-50  
  Keywords Behavioural lateralization: Eye preference; Limb preference; Aggression; Vigilance; Reactivity; Przewalski horses  
  Abstract tEye and limb preferences were scored in the closest undomesticated relative of Equuscaballus using the same methods as used previously to study laterality in feral horses.Observations were made of 33 Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) (male N = 20,female N = 13) living under natural social conditions on a large reserve in France. Signifi-cant left-eye/side biases were found in agonistic interactions within harem bands (M ± SEbias to left 58% ± 0.01 for threats, P < 0.001; 68% ± 0.05 for attacks; P < 0.001) and in stallionfights (threats, 52% ± 0.01 left, P < 0.001; attacks, 63% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001): as many as 80%of the horses were significantly lateralized in attack responses within harem bands. Lat-erality of vigilance was measured as lifting up the head from grazing and turning it to theleft or right side: a directional bias to the left was found (M ± SE 53% ± 0.02 left, P < 0.001).Side bias in reactivity was calculated as the percent of head lifts above the level of thewithers on the left or right side and this was also left side biased (M ± SE 73% ± 0.03 left,P < 0.001). These results indicate right-hemisphere specialization for control of aggressionand responses to novelty. The left bias in attack scores within harem bands was strongerin males than females (P = 0.024) and in immature than adult horses (P = 0.032). Immaturehorses were also more strongly lateralized than adults in vigilance scores (P = 0.022), whichmay suggest that experience reduces these side biases. Our results show that Przewalskihorses exhibit left eye preferences, as do feral horses, and do so even more strongly thanferal horses. Considering feral and Przewalski horses together, we deduce that ancestralhorses had similar lateral biases. Also similar to feral horses, the Przewalski horses showedno significant forelimb preference at the group level or in the majority of horses at theindividual level, confirming the hypothesis that previously reported limb preferences indomestic breeds are entrained or generated by breed-specific selection.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5768  
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Author (up) Benz, B.; Köhnke, J.; Kappelmann, K. url  openurl
  Title Bewertung einer Faltschieberanlage in einem Reitstall mit Paddockboxen[Assessment of a v-form scraper in a horse barn with paddock boxes] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Landtechnik, Agricultural Engineering, Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue 4 Pages 242-247  
  Keywords Entmistungstechnik, Arbeitswirtschaft, Pferdeverhalten [Manure removal systems, working time requirement, horse behaviour]  
  Abstract In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden in einem Praxisbetrieb die Verfahrenskosten eines
Faltschiebers erhoben. Aufgrund des reduzierten Arbeitszeitaufwandes ergibt sich durch den
Einsatz des Faltschiebers eine jährliche Kostenersparnis in Höhe von 78 € je Pferd. Durch die
Mechanisierung der Entmistung kann fast 30 % der Arbeitszeit in der Pensionspferdehaltung
eingespart werden. Beim Einsatz einer Entmistungstechnik spielt jedoch nicht nur die Ökonomie,
sondern darüber hinaus auch das Pferdeverhalten eine Rolle. Im selben Praxisbetrieb wird
nach Installation der Faltschieberanlage das Pferdeverhalten beim Erstkontakt mit dem Schieber
beobachtet. Dabei zeigt sich, dass die Pferde den direkten Kontakt mit der Entmistungstechnik
und somit kritische Situationen vermeiden.
[In the survey at hand, the procedural costs for a v-form scraper are gathered. In the process,
it is found that due to the reduced working time requirement the use of a v-form scraper
saves € 78/horse/year. The mechanization of manure removal can reduce working time in
horse keeping by almost 30 percent. However, using manure removal systems, the profitability
is not the only crucial criteria. The behaviour of the horses plays an essential role, too.
Moreover the horses’ behaviour when first encountering the manure scraper is observed. The
study reveals that the horses avoid contact with the scraper and thereby also shirk critical
situations.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5841  
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Author (up) Benz, B.; Münzing, C.; Krueger, K.; Winter, D. url  openurl
  Title Ethologische Untersuchung von Heuraufen in der Pferdehaltung [Ethological investigation of hayracks in equine husbandry] Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Landtechnik Abbreviated Journal Landtechnik  
  Volume 69 Issue 5 Pages 239-244  
  Keywords Pferdehaltung, Fressverhalten, Futterraufen [horse keeping, feeding behaviour, roughage racks]  
  Abstract Eine tiergerechte, physiologisch und anatomisch auf die Bedürfnisse der Pferde ausgerichtete
Raufutterversorgung sollte die Kaubedürfnisse und die Beschäftigungszeiten von Pferden
ausreichend berücksichtigen. Daher – und auch aufgrund des bestehenden Kostendrucks bei
Raufutter – steigt das Interesse an Raufutterraufen, durch die möglicherweise die Futteraufnahmezeiten
verlängert sowie Futterverluste minimiert werden können.
Die vorliegende Untersuchung vergleicht das Fressverhalten und die Körperhaltung von acht
Pferden beim Einsatz von drei unterschiedlichen Futterraufen mit der Bodenfütterung in Einzelboxenhaltung.
Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen den Schluss zu, dass der Einsatz von
Raufutterraufen die Futteraufnahmezeiten verlängert und somit längere Beschäftigungszeiten
für die Futteraufnahme gewährleistet werden. Außerdem konnte festgestellt werden, dass die
Pferde das Raufutter bei einer der drei untersuchten Raufen überwiegend mit natürlicher Kopf-
Hals-Haltung aufnahmen.
[Regarding the species horse, an appropriate supply of roughage should take into account the
need to chew as well as the need for occupation. In this context, and due to the current cost
pressure for hay, the interest in roughage racks increases. It is assumed that roughage racks
could help to extend the feeding time and reduce food losses.
The present study places the emphasis on the observation of the feeding behaviour of eight
horses in single horse boxes. Three different roughage racks are compared to traditional feeding
on the floor. On the basis of the results it may be concluded that the use of roughage racks
extends the feeding time and thus ensures longer occupation. In one of the three roughage
racks investigated the horses mainly eat in a natural posture of their head and neck.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5840  
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Author (up) Brinkmann, L.; Gerken, M.; Hambly, C.; Speakman, J.R.; Riek, A. url  openurl
  Title Saving energy during hard times: Energetic adaptations of Shetland pony mares Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recent results suggest that wild Northern herbivores reduce their metabolism during times of low ambient temperatures and food shortage in order to reduce their energetic needs. It is however not known if domesticated animals are also able to reduce their energy expenditure. We exposed ten Shetland pony mares to different environmental conditions (summer and winter) and to two food quantities (60 and 100% of maintenance energy requirement, respectively) during low winter temperatures to examine energetic and behavioural responses. In summer ponies showed a considerably higher field metabolic rate (FMR) (63.4±15.0 MJ d-1) compared to restrictively fed and control animals in winter (24.6±7.8 MJ d-1 and 15.0±1.1 MJ d-1, respectively). During summer conditions locomotor activity, resting heart rates and total water turnover were considerably elevated (P<0.001) compared to winter. Restrictively fed animals (N=5) compensated for the decreased energy supply by reducing their FMR by 26% compared to control animals (N=5). Furthermore, resting heart rate, body mass and body condition score were lower (29.2±2.7 beats min-1; 140±22 kg; 3.0±1.0 points) than in control animals (36.8±41 beats min-1; 165 ±31 kg; 4.4±0.7 points; P<0.05). While the observed behaviour did not change, nocturnal hypothermia was elevated. We conclude that ponies acclimatize to different climatic conditions by changing their metabolic rate, behaviour and some physiological parameters. When exposed to energy challenges, ponies, like wild herbivores, exhibited hypometabolism and nocturnal hypothermia.  
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  Notes 10.1242/jeb.111815 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5836  
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Author (up) Dalla Costa, E.; Minero, M.; Lebelt, D.; Stucke, D.; Canali, E.; Leach, M.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages e92281 EP -  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <sec><title>Background</title><p>The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]).</p></sec><sec><title>Methodology/Principal Findings</title><p>Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups.</p></sec><sec><title>Conclusions</title><p>The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules.</p></sec>  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5830  
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Author (up) Duboscq, J.; Agil, M.; Engelhardt, A.; Thierry, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The function of postconflict interactions: new prospects from the study of a tolerant species of primate Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 87 Issue 0 Pages 107-120  
  Keywords aggression; anxiety; conflict management; female; Macaca nigra; reconciliation; social tolerance; third-party interaction  
  Abstract Aggression can generate anxiety, create uncertainty about its aftermath and jeopardise social relationships. Postconflict interactions serve as conflict management strategies to mitigate these consequences. Whereas postconflict interactions are well characterized in many animals, their functions are still insufficiently investigated. Four functional hypotheses have been proposed: stress reduction, relationship repair, self-protection and benign intent. We aimed to test these hypotheses in females of a tolerant macaque species, the crested macaque, Macaca nigra, under natural conditions, for three postconflict interactions: reconciliation, affiliation and aggression with third parties. Our results provide meaningful contrasts compared with findings in other species. We found no evidence that aggression had consequences for individuals' behavioural indicators of anxiety, although it increased the likelihood of secondary aggression with third parties. There was little evidence for the stress reduction hypothesis as the occurrence of any of the three postconflict interactions investigated had little effect on the measured behavioural indicators of anxiety. Conflict and dyad characteristics also had limited influence on anxiety. The relationship repair function was only partly validated: dyads with stronger bonds or that exchanged more support did not reconcile more often, but dyads with attributes related to the symmetry, stability and predictability (i.e. security) within relationships did. Patterns of initiation and directionality of postconflict interactions in this study population suggest that reconciliation may constitute the signalling of appeasement and benign intent. Furthermore, we found that aggression towards third parties may serve as a source of self-protection and reassertion of the females' social status. The distinctive pattern of postconflict management strategies revealed in wild female crested macaques appears to be related to their typically tolerant social style. These results demonstrate the usefulness of concomitantly studying aggression, postconflict interactions and their functions, to understand conflict management strategies comprehensively, while taking into account the level of social tolerance characterizing the studied society.  
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  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5889  
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Author (up) Gaunet, F.; Massioui, F.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Marked referential communicative behaviours, but no differentiation of the “knowledge state” of humans in untrained pet dogs versus 1-year-old infants Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Abbreviated Journal Animal Cognition  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
  Keywords Dog; Communication; Knowledge attribution; Infant; Social; Learning  
  Abstract The study examines whether untrained dogs and infants take their caregiver’s visual experience into account when communicating with them. Fifteen adult dogs and 15 one-year-old infants were brought into play with their caregivers with one of their own toys. The caregiver gave the toy to the experimenter, who, in different conditions, placed it either above or under one of two containers, with both the infant or dog and the caregiver witnessing the positioning; in a third condition, the caregiver left the room before the toy was placed under one of the two containers and later returned. Afterwards, for each condition, the caregiver asked the participant to indicate the location of the toy. Neither dogs nor infants—untrained to the use of the partner’s knowledge state—showed much difference of behaviour between the three conditions. However, dogs showed more persistence for most behaviours (gaze at the owner, gaze at the toy and gaze alternation) and conditions, suggesting that the situation made more demands on dogs’ communicative behaviours than on those of infants. When all deictic behaviours of infants (arm points towards the toy and gaze at the toy) were taken into account, dogs and infants did not differ. Phylogeny, early experience and ontogeny may all play a role in the ways that both species communicate with adult humans.  
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  Publisher Springer Berlin Heidelberg Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9448 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5789  
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Author (up) Giese,; C. Giese; Gerber,; V. Gerber; Howald,; M. Howald; Bachmann,; I. Bachmann; Burger,; D. Burger url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stressbelastung und Verhalten von Pferden in stromführenden gegenüber nicht stromführenden Führanlagen Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde Abbreviated Journal SAT  
  Volume 156 Issue 4 Pages 163-169  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Um die Stressbelastung von Pferden in Führanlagen zu vergleichen, wurden 12 Pferde während 3 Wochen in einer Führanlage mit und ohne stromführenden (3.7 kV) Abtrennungen bewegt. Zur Ermittlung der Stressbelastung wurden die Cortisolwerte im Blut gemessen, die Herzschlagfrequenz mittels Polar® registriert und das Verhalten erfasst. Weder die Cortisol- noch die Herzfrequenzmessungen zeigten einen bedeutenden signifikanten Unterschied zwischen Pferden, die in einer stromführenden beziehungsweise nicht stromführenden Führanlage gingen. Die höchsten Cortisol- und Herzfrequenzwerte wurden in der ersten Woche (Angewöhnungsphase) verzeichnet. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden bei den Verhaltensparametern «Spontanes Wechseln des Abteils» und «Kontakt mit der Trennwand» beobachtet: Während solche vor allem in der ersten Woche und vor dem ersten Stromeinsatz vorkamen, zeigte kein Pferd einen Abteilwechsel während und nach dem Stromeinsatz. Die Resultate dieser Studie deuten darauf hin, dass der Einsatz von stromführenden Abtrennungen in Führanlagen für Pferde keinen bedeutenden messbaren Stress verursacht.  
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  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5794  
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Author (up) Graf, P.; König von Borstel, U.; Gauly, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Practical considerations regarding the implementation of a temperament test into horse performance tests: Results of a large-scale test run Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 329-340  
  Keywords novel object test; temperament; personality; horse; performance traits; performance tests  
  Abstract Abstract Considering the ever-growing demand of various breeding organizations for an objective, inexpensive, reliable, and easily conducted assessment of the behavior of horses, the aim of our study was to implement a novel-object test and a startling test into any kind of breeding performance testing to assess horses' temperament. Additionally, the influence of testing areas (familiar or unfamiliar), riders, and horse factors such as levels of training, breed, and age were of interest. Furthermore, recommendations for the practical implementation concerning the parameters should be given. Therefore, 1,028 horses over a period of 3 years participated in a temperament test consisting of 5 different stimuli. The horses were either ridden (61.8 %) or led by hand (38.2 %) by an unfamiliar professional rider (N = 43) or a familiar rider (N = 20). Live behavioral observations were taken by a trained observer. Overall, horses' scores for reactivity in the present temperament test were distributed over the whole scale, with lower means and higher standard deviations (6.7 ± 2.2-7.6 ± 2.1) than corresponding scores from the conventional personality evaluation in performance tests (7.7 ± 0.8-8.2 ± 0.5; P < 0.01). High correlations (r = 0.3-0.9; P < 0.001) between the scores for reactivity and the other behavioral parameters (emotional expression, activity, time to calm down, rider's aids) show a large influence of these parameters in assessing the horses' temperament. Factors like breed type, sex, and age had significant influences (P < 0.001) on different scores of the temperament test. In most cases, the rider or handler had no influence on the different scores assessed during the temperament test. The training level and the testing modus never had a significant influence on different scores. Only the testing station or location had a small influence on the scores for the stimulus “bridge” in some horses. Based on the results, it could be concluded that an implementation of a temperament tests into performance testing is possible during various types of testing procedure. Especially the assessment of reactivity, emotional expression, interest in the stimulus and rider's aids during and after passing the stimulus, as well as the time to calm down are important parameters for analyzing the horses' personality.  
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  ISSN 1558-7878 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5867  
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Author (up) Jennings, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limited evidence that visual lateralization is associated with fitness in rutting male fallow deer Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 92 Issue 0 Pages 85-91  
  Keywords aggression; contest behaviour; Dama dama; fallow deer; lateral display; lateralization; mating success; third-party intervention behaviour  
  Abstract Under certain models of animal competition, individuals are expected to gather information about opponent quality in order to determine whether they should fight or withdraw. However, the ability to process complex information differs between individuals and across brain hemispheres: a feature of vertebrate cognition known as lateralization that is not anticipated by contest models. I investigated the relationship between aggressive behaviour and mating success during the fallow deer, Dama dama, rut and a measure of lateralization derived from eye preference during parallel walking. Results show that there was no relationship between the tendency to escalate to fighting or predictability in the tendency to engage in fighting and lateralization. Conversely, there was a quadratic relationship between third-party intervention behaviour and lateralization: the greater the tendency to intervene in ongoing fights the lower the degree of lateralization. However, individuals that showed lateralization for right-eye use were least likely to be targeted by the intervening male; thus lateralization is beneficial in this context because targeted males are highly likely to lose this subsequent encounter. The relationship between lateralization and mating success was also nonlinear: males that showed little evidence for an eye bias during lateral displays had the greatest mating success. Taken together, individuals that showed lateralization benefited from avoiding being targeted after third-party intervention; conversely, individuals that showed little evidence for lateralization actively intervened during ongoing fights and had higher mating success. These results suggest that, although lateralization does appear to confer a fitness advantage on individuals, this is not as extensive as anticipated.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5802  
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