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Author (up) Gorgasser I.; Tichy A.; Palme R. openurl 
  Title Faecal cortisol metabolites in Quarter Horses during initial training under field conditions[Messung der Kortisolmetaboliten im Pferdekot während der Grundausbildung von 2jährigen Quarter Horses] Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria Abbreviated Journal Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria  
  Volume 94 Issue Pages 226 - 230  
  Keywords horse, stress, adrenocortical activity, western riding, non-invasive[Pferd, Stress, Nebennierenrindenaktivität, Westernreiten, nicht-invasiv]  
  Abstract The first month of training of a young horse is suspected to be stressful, but the endocrine responses to initial training are unknown. Therefore in our study a total of 40 Quarter Horses (QH), all at the age of almost 2 years, were followed during the first 30 days of their training. During this time faecal samples were collected twice daily and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were measured. Baseline values of FCM ranged between 1.3 and 20.1 (median: 6.7) ng/g faeces. No differences in FCM values between days of training were found. Mares showed the highest values. Significant diurnal variations were observed in mares (p=0.035) and stallions (p=0.003), but not in geldings (p=0.282). As in this study adrenocortical activity was not increased during initial training, horses seem to cope very well with this new situation. The results of our large-scale study provide basic physiological data about initial training. This gives additional input in an emotional debate about animal welfare aspects of first time handling and training of horses.

Abbreviations: 11,17-DOA = 11,17-dioxoandrostanes; EIA = Enyzme Immunoassay; FCM = faecal cortisol metabolites; GC = glucocorticoids; HPA-axis = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis; QH = Quarter Horses

[Das Einreiten eines jungen Pferdes steht unter Verdacht belastend zu sein. Bisher gibt es aber keine Veröffentlichungen über endokrine Vorgänge während dieser Phase. Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde überprüft, ob Pferde aufgrund physischer und psychischer Belastungen während des Trainings höhere Konzentrationen an Kortisolmetaboliten im Kot (FCM) aufweisen. Es wurden dazu 40 Quarter Horses im Alter von 2 Jahren während der ersten 30 Tage der Grundausbildung des Westernreitens beobachtet und ihre FCM Werte gemessen. Während dieser Zeitspanne wurden täglich morgens und abends Kotproben der Pferde genommen. Die Basalwerte der FCM Konzentration variierten zwischen 1,3 und 20,1 (Median: 6,7) ng/g Kot, wobei Stuten die höchsten Werte hatten. Signifikante Unterschiede während der einzelnen Trainingstage konnten nicht festgestellt werden. In der Tagesrhythmik wurden signifikante Unterschiede bei Stuten (p=0,035) und bei Hengsten (p=0,003), jedoch nicht bei Wallachen (p=0,282) ermittelt. In dieser Studie konnte keine erhöhte Aktivität der Nebennierenrinde im Verlauf der Grundausbildung eines Pferdes im Westernreitstil festgestellt werden. Das legt nahe, dass Pferde mit dieser neuen, zeitlich kurz andauernden Situationen gut zurechtkommen. Unsere Studie wurde an einer großen Anzahl von Tieren unter Feldbedingungen durchgeführt. Sie bietet daher eine gute Datenbasis über Belastungen während des Einreitens. Damit liefert sie einen zusätzlichen Beitrag zu einer mitunter emotional geführten Debatte über tierschutzrelevante Aspekte bei der Grundausbildung von Pferden.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6125  
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Author (up) Harman, A.M.; Moore, S.; Hoskins, R.; Keller, P. doi  openurl
  Title Horse vision and an explanation for the visual behaviour originally explained by the 'ramp retina' Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Equine veterinary journal Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J  
  Volume 31 Issue 5 Pages 384-390  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Cell Count; Eye/*anatomy & histology; Ganglia, Sensory/cytology; Horses/*physiology; Refractive Errors/veterinary; Retina/cytology/*physiology; Vision/*physiology; Visual Acuity; Visual Fields  
  Abstract Here we provide confirmation that the 'ramp retina' of the horse, once thought to result in head rotating visual behaviour, does not exist. We found a 9% variation in axial length of the eye between the streak region and the dorsal periphery. However, the difference was in the opposite direction to that proposed for the 'ramp retina'. Furthermore, acuity in the narrow, intense visual streak in the inferior retina is 16.5 cycles per degree compared with 2.7 cycles per degree in the periphery. Therefore, it is improbable that the horse rotates its head to focus onto the peripheral retina. Rather, the horse rotates the nose up high to observe distant objects because binocular overlap is oriented down the nose, with a blind area directly in front of the forehead.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0425-1644 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:10505953 Approved no  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 836  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Jafarzadeh A.; Sadeghi M.; Karam G.A.; Vazirinejad R. openurl 
  Title Salivary IgA and IgE levels in healthy subjects: relation to age and gender Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Braz. oral res. Abbreviated Journal Braz. Oral Res.  
  Volume 24 Issue 1 Pages 21-27  
  Keywords Saliva; Immunoglobulin A; Immunoglobulin E; Adult; Child  
  Abstract It has been reported that the immune system undergoes age and gender changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the age- and gender-dependent changes of salivary IgA and IgE levels among healthy subjects. A total of 203 healthy individuals (aged 1-70 years) were enrolled in the study. Two milliliters of saliva were collected from all participants, and salivary IgA and IgE levels were measured by the ELISA technique. Mean salivary IgA levels were significantly higher in subjects aged 11-20 years as compared to subjects aged 1-10 years (P < 0.01). Mean salivary IgA levels increased with age up to the age of 60 years, and then slightly decreased in subjects aged 61-70 years. The frequency of subjects with detectable levels of salivary IgE and mean salivary IgE levels gradually increased with age, with maximum levels being observed in the 31-40 years age group and not changing significantly thereafter. The mean levels of salivary IgA and IgE in adults were significantly higher than those observed in children (P < 0.00001 and P < 0.05, respectively). No significant differences were observed between men and women regarding both salivary immunoglobulins. These results showed age-dependent changes of the salivary IgA and IgE levels. Gender had no effect on the salivary levels of IgA and IgE.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6126  
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Author (up) Krueger, K. isbn  openurl
  Title Die Bedeutung der Schiefe, Händigkeit und sensorische Lateralität der Pferde Type Conference Article
  Year 2014 Publication Pferdetage Baden-Württemberg 2014 Abbreviated Journal  
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  Publisher Matthaes Medien Place of Publication Stuttgart Editor  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-938053-11-9 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5952  
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Author (up) Palme, R.;Touma, C.;Arias,N.;Dominchin, M.F.;Lepschy, M. openurl 
  Title Steroid extraction: Get the best out of faecal samples Type Journal Article
  Year 3012 Publication Veterinary Medicine Austria Abbreviated Journal Vet. Med. Austria  
  Volume 100 Issue Pages 238-246  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Faecal steroid hormone metabolites are becoming increasingly popular as parameters for reproductive functions and stress. Theextraction of the steroids from the faecal matrix represents the initial step before quantification can be performed. The steroid metabolites present in the faecal matrix are of varying polarity and composition, so selection of a proper extraction procedure is essential. There have been some studies to address this complex but often neglected point. Radiolabelled
steroids (e.g. cortisol or progesterone) have frequently been added to faecal samples to estimate the efficiency of the extraction procedures used. However, native, unmetabolized steroids are normally not present in the faeces and therefore the results are artificial and do not accurately reflect the actual recoveries of the substances of interest. In this respect, recovery experiments based on faecal samples from radiometabolism studies are more informative. In these samples, the metabolite content accurately reflects the mixture of metabolites present in the given species. As a result, it is possible to evaluate different extraction methods for use with faecal samples. We present studies on sheep, horses, pigs, hares and dogs that utilized samples containing naturally metabolized, 14C-labelled steroids.
 
  Address Review, faeces, extrac- tion, non-invasive hormone moni- toring, stress, reproduction.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6046  
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Author (up) Wathan, J.; Burrows, A.M.; Waller, B.M.; McComb, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication PLoS ONE Abbreviated Journal PLoS ONE  
  Volume 10 Issue 8 Pages e0131738  
  Keywords  
  Abstract <p>Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (<italic>Equus caballus</italic>) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high?and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.</p>  
  Address  
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  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5973  
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Author (up) Weber-Mzell, D.; Kotanko, P.; Hauer, A.C.; Goriup, U.; Haas, J.; Lanner, N.; Erwa, W.; Ahmaida, I.A.; Haitchi-Petnehazy, S.; Stenzel, M.; Lanzer, G.; Deutsch, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Gender, age and seasonal effects on IgA deficiency: a study of 7293 Caucasians Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication European Journal of Clinical Investigation Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 34 Issue 3 Pages 224-228  
  Keywords Age- and gender-related variability; immunoglobulin A; seasonal variability; serum IgA deficiency  
  Abstract Background The frequency of serum IgA deficiency (SIgAD) differs between populations. We examined the prevalence of SIgAD in healthy Caucasians. Materials and methods Serum immunoglobulin A (SIgA) was measured in 7293 volunteers (2264 women, 5029 men) aged 30 ± 14·2 years (mean ± SD; range: 1266). Serum immunoglobulin A and subnormal SIgA levels were defined by a SIgA level < 0·07 g L-1, and between 0·07 and 0·7 g L-1, respectively. Means were compared by analysis of variance (anova) and analysis of covariance (ancova); frequencies by the χ2 test. Results Fifteen subjects (0·21%; one woman, 14 men) had SIgAD. Subnormal SIgA levels were found in 155 persons (2·13%): 21 females (0·93% of the females) and 134 males (2·66% of the males; difference: 1·74%; 95% CI: 1·122·33%; P < 0·001). Males were more likely to have subnormal SIgA levels or SIgAD (odds ratio 3·09, 95% CI: 1·974·85). The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA was lowest in winter (χ2 = 14·8; P = 0·002; 3 d.f.; and χ2 = 43·2; P < 0·001; 3 d.f., respectively). Serum immunoglobulin A concentrations were significantly higher during winter. Serum immunoglobulin A levels increased with age on average by 0·2 ± 0·06 g L-1 per decade of life (P < 0·001). Taking into account the influence of age, SIgA concentration was lower in females as compared with males. Conclusion The prevalence of SIgAD and subnormal SIgA levels is increased in males. There exists a significant influence of gender, age and seasons on SIgA levels.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Blackwell Science Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2362 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6127  
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Author (up) Wolter, R.; Pantel, N.; Möstl, E.; Krueger, K. isbn  openurl
  Title Die Rolle des Alpha-Hengstes in einer Przewalski Bachelor-Gruppe beim Erkunden einer neuen Fläche in einem Semi-Reservat Type Conference Article
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Göttinger Pferdetage'13 Issue Pages 66  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-88542-782-7 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5946  
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