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Author (up) Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Scopa, C.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0176717  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory) to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6158  
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Author (up) Ben-Shahar, R. doi  openurl
  Title Habitat classification in relation to movements and densities of ungulates in a semi-arid savanna Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication African Journal of Ecology Abbreviated Journal Afr. J. Ecol.  
  Volume 33 Issue Pages 50-63  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Habitat types were classified in a semi-arid nature reserve in South Africa in order to assess the spatial requirements of resident ungulates, namely zebra, wildebeest and impala. Multivariate analyses showed patterns of soil factors and plant species associations that corresponded with variations of local geological formations and the abundance of plants. The response of ungulates to habitats of different degrees of complexity in terms of soils and plant species associations was examined on the basis of annual occurrence. New habitat types were described through merging or subdividing the existing classification. New habitat categories which corresponded with high occurrences of ungulates provided better indications of the resource requirements for large herbivores. Wildebeest were restricted in their habitat requirements and were characterized by high seasonal densities in bottom lands, particularly during the late wet period. There was a considerable overlap in the preference of habitat types between wildebeest and zebra although zebra were aggregated during longer periods within the dolerite formation. Impala had a consistent annual preference for the granite formation where seepage lines and bottom lands were inhabited seasonally by large herd concentrations.
Résumé

On a classifié les types d'habitat dans une réserve naturelle semiaride d'Afrique du Sud, dans le but d'évaluer les exigences spatiales des ongulés qui y vivent, c'est à dire les zèbres, les gnous et les impalas. Des analyses multivariées ont révélé des schémas pour les facteurs du sol et pour les associations d'espèces végétales qui correspondent aux variations des formations géologiques locales et à l'abon-dance des plantes. On a examiné la réponse des ongulés à des habitats de complexité différente en termes de sols et d'associations d'espéces végétales, d'après leur présence annuelle. On a décrit de nouveaux types d'habitats en fusionnant ou en subdivisant la classification existante. Les nouvelles catégories d'habitats qui correspondaient à des présences abondantes d'ongulés ont fourni de meilleures indications sur les ressources exigées par les grands herbivores. Les gnous se limitaient aux endroits qui répondaient a leurs exigences et se caractérisaient par de hautes densités saisonnières dans les régions basses, spécialement pendant la dernière saison des pluies. Il y avait un recouvrement considérable des types d'habitats préferés par les gnous et les zébres, encore que les zébres se rassemblent plus longtemps dans la formation doléritique. Les impalas marquent une préférence annuelle constante pour la formation granitique où les sources et les terres basses sont occupées de façon saisonnière par des hardes très concentrées.
 
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2227  
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Author (up) Blunden, A.S.; Smith, K.C.; Whitwell, K.E.; Dunn, K.A. doi  openurl
  Title Systemic infection by equid herpesvirus-1 in a Grevy's zebra stallion (Equus grevyi) with particular reference to genital pathology Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Comparative Pathology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Pathol  
  Volume 119 Issue 4 Pages 485-493  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Zoo; Epididymis/pathology/virology; Equidae/*virology; Herpesviridae Infections/diagnosis/pathology/*veterinary; Herpesvirus 1, Equid/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity; Lymph Nodes/pathology/virology; Male; Nasal Mucosa/pathology/virology; Pulmonary Edema/pathology; Spleen/virology; Testis/*pathology/virology  
  Abstract A severe multi-systemic form of equid herpesvirus-1 infection is described in an adult zebra stallion. There was multifocal necrotizing rhinitis, marked hydrothorax and pulmonary oedema, with viral antigen expression in degenerating epithelial cells, local endothelial cells and intravascular leucocytes of the nasal mucosa and lung. Specific localization of EHV-1 infection was seen in the testes and epididymides, including infection of Leydig cells and germinal epithelium, which would have facilitated venereal shedding of virus in life. The case provided a unique opportunity to study hitherto undescribed aspects of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring EHV-1 infection in the male equine genital tract. Restriction digests of the isolate demonstrated a pattern similar to that of EHV-1 isolates previously recovered from aborted zebra and onager fetuses.  
  Address Animal Health Trust Centre for Preventive Medicine, Newmarket, Suffolk, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-9975 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:9839210 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 2239  
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Author (up) Branson, N.J.; Rogers, L.J. doi  openurl
  Title Relationship between paw preference strength and noise phobia in Canis familiaris Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal J. Comp. Psychol.  
  Volume 120 Issue 3 Pages 176-183  
  Keywords noise phobia; lateralization; paw preference; dog; fear  
  Abstract The authors investigated the relationship between degree of lateralization and noise phobia in 48 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) by scoring paw preference to hold a food object and relating it to reactivity to the sounds of thunderstorms and fireworks, measured by playback and a questionnaire. The dogs without a significant paw preference were significantly more reactive to the sounds than the dogs with either a left-paw or right-paw preference. Intense reactivity, therefore, is associated with a weaker strength of cerebral lateralization. The authors note the similarity between their finding and the weaker hand preferences shown in humans suffering extreme levels of anxiety and suggest neural mechanisms that may be involved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Address Branson, N. J.: Centre for Neuroscience and Animal Behavior, School of Biological, Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, Australia, nbranson@une.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher US: American Psychological Association Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1939-2087 (Electronic); 0735-7036 (Print) ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ 2006-09888-002 Serial 5384  
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Author (up) Brauer, J.; Kaminski, J.; Riedel, J.; Call, J.; Tomasello, M. doi  openurl
  Title Making inferences about the location of hidden food: social dog, causal ape Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of comparative psychology Abbreviated Journal J Comp Psychol  
  Volume 120 Issue 1 Pages 38-47  
  Keywords Animals; Communication; Cues; Dogs; Exploratory Behavior; *Feeding Behavior; Female; *Food; Male; Pan paniscus; Pan troglodytes; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) and great apes from the genus Pan were tested on a series of object choice tasks. In each task, the location of hidden food was indicated for subjects by some kind of communicative, behavioral, or physical cue. On the basis of differences in the ecologies of these 2 genera, as well as on previous research, the authors hypothesized that dogs should be especially skillful in using human communicative cues such as the pointing gesture, whereas apes should be especially skillful in using physical, causal cues such as food in a cup making noise when it is shaken. The overall pattern of performance by the 2 genera strongly supported this social-dog, causal-ape hypothesis. This result is discussed in terms of apes' adaptations for complex, extractive foraging and dogs' adaptations, during the domestication process, for cooperative communication with humans.  
  Address Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany. jbraeuer@eva.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Washington, D.C. : 1983 Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0735-7036 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16551163 Approved yes  
  Call Number refbase @ user @ Serial 597  
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Author (up) Briard, L.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival Type Journal Article
  Year 0 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords consensus; herding; polygyny; personal leadership; shared decision  
  Abstract Abstract The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6151  
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Author (up) Briard, L.; Dorn, C.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personality and Affinities Play a Key Role in the Organisation of Collective Movements in a Group of Domestic Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 121 Issue 9 Pages 888-902  
  Keywords decision-making; equids; hierarchy; leadership; social network  
  Abstract Understanding how groups of individuals with different motives come to daily decisions about the exploitation of their environment is a key question in animal behaviour. While interindividual differences are often seen only as a threat to group cohesion, growing evidence shows that they may to some extent facilitate effective collective action. Recent studies suggest that personality differences influence how individuals are attracted to conspecifics and affect their behaviour as an initiator or a follower. However, most of the existing studies are limited to a few taxa, mainly social fish and arthropods. Horses are social herbivores that live in long-lasting groups and show identifiable personality differences between individuals. We studied a group of 38 individuals living in a 30-ha hilly pasture. Over 200 h, we sought to identify how far individual differences such as personality and affinity distribution affect the dynamic of their collective movements. First, we report that individuals distribute their relationships according to similar personality and hierarchical rank. This is the first study that demonstrates a positive assortment between unrelated individuals according to personality in a mammal species. Second, we measured individual propensity to initiate and found that bold individuals initiated more often than shy individuals. However, their success in terms of number of followers and joining duration did not depend on their individual characteristics. Moreover, joining process is influenced by social network, with preferred partners following each other and bolder individuals being located more often at the front of the movement. Our results illustrate the importance of taking into account interindividual behavioural differences in studies of social behaviours.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0310 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6153  
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Author (up) Brooks, C.J.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Directed movement and orientation across a large natural landscape by zebras, Equus burchelli antiquorum Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 277-285  
  Keywords correlated random walk; directed movement; Equus burchelli antiquorum; Gps; movement path; orientation; spatial memory; spatial scale; zebra  
  Abstract We investigated how plains zebras moved across a large natural landscape by analysing the movement paths of nine zebra mares foraging out from spatially confined waterholes during the dry season in the Makgadikgadi Pans National Park, Botswana. Since it was essential to investigate directed movement over a range of spatial scales to determine the correct movement behaviour and strategy, we used Nams's scaling test for oriented movement. Zebras followed directed movement paths in the lower to medium spatial scales (10 m3.7 km) and above their visual, and possibly olfactory, range. The spatial scale of directed movement suggests that zebras had a well-defined spatial awareness and cognitive ability. Seven zebras used directed movement paths, but the remaining two followed paths not significantly different to a correlated random walk (CRW). At large spatial scales (>3 km) no distinct movement pattern could be identified and paths could not be distinguished from a CRW. Foraging strategy affected the extent of directed movement: zebras with a confined dispersion of grazing patches around the central place directed their movements over a longer distance. Zebras may extend the distance at which they can direct their movement after improving their knowledge of the local environment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6148  
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Author (up) Byrne, R. W.; Russon, A. E. doi  openurl
  Title Learning by imitation: a hierachical approach Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain Sci.  
  Volume 21 Issue Pages 667-721  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 5598  
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Author (up) Call J doi  openurl
  Title Inferences about the location of food in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, and Pongo pygmaeus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Comparative Psychology Abbreviated Journal J. Comp. Psychol.  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 232  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Bonobos (Pan paniscus; n = 4), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 12), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla; n = 8), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; n = 6) were presented with 2 cups (1 baited) and given visual or auditory information about their contents. Visual information consisted of letting subjects look inside the cups. Auditory information consisted of shaking the cup so that the baited cup produced a rattling sound. Subjects correctly selected the baited cup both when they saw or heard the food. Nine individuals were above chance in both visual and auditory conditions. More important, subjects as a group selected the baited cup when only the empty cup was either shown or shaken, which means that subjects chose correctly without having seen or heard the food (i.e., inference by exclusion). Control tests showed that subjects were not more attracted to noisy cups, avoided shaken noiseless cups, or learned to use auditory information as a cue during the study. It is concluded that subjects understood that the food caused the noise, not simply that the noise was associated with the food. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)  
  Address food location; inference ; apes;auditory information;visual information  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved yes  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 3057  
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