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Author (up) Becker-Birck, M.; Schmidt, A.; Wulf, M.; Aurich, J.; von der Wense, A.; Möstl, E.; Berz, R.; Aurich, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability, and superficial body temperature, in horses lunged either with hyperflexion of the neck or with an extended head and neck position Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 97 Issue 2 Pages 322-330  
  Keywords animal welfare; equitation; stress; training  
  Abstract Bringing the head and neck of ridden horses into a position of hyperflexion is widely used in equestrian sports. In our study, the hypothesis was tested that hyperflexion is an acute stressor for horses. Salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and superficial body temperature were determined in horses (n = 16) lunged on two subsequent days. The head and neck of the horse was fixed with side reins in a position allowing forward extension on day A and fixed in hyperflexion on day B. The order of treatments alternated between horses. In response to lunging, cortisol concentration increased (day A from 0.73 ± 0.06 to 1.41 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001; day B from 0.68 ± 0.07 to 1.38 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001) but did not differ between days A and B. Beat-to-beat (RR) interval decreased in response to lunging on both days. HRV variables standard deviation of RR interval (SDRR) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) decreased (p < 0.001) but did not differ between days. In the cranial region of the neck, the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was increased in hyperflexion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, physiological parameters do not indicate an acute stress response to hyperflexion of the head alone in horses lunged at moderate speed and not touched with the whip. However, if hyperflexion is combined with active intervention of a rider, a stressful experience for the horse cannot be excluded.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0396 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6182  
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Author (up) Krueger, K.; Marr, I.; Farmer, K. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Equine Cognition Type Book Chapter
  Year 2017 Publication Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-11  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Cham Editor Vonk, J.; Shackelford, T.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-47829-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Krueger2017 Serial 6181  
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Author (up) van Breda, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A Nonnatural Head-Neck Position(Rollkur) During Training Results in Less Acute Stress in Elite, Trained, Dressage Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science Abbreviated Journal Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 59-64  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This study measured parameters of stress in recreational, trained horses (REC; n = 7) and elite (International Grand Prix level) trained, dressage horses (DRES; n = 5). The training of the DRES horses uses an unnatural head?neck position (Rollkur), whereas in the REC horses such training techniques are not common. The study measured stress by using heart rate variability analysis for 30 min postfeeding in the morning and 30 min postexercise after a morning training session. The study found no significant difference at rest between the REC and DRES horses. During the posttraining measurements, however, the DRES horses showed, among others, a less sympathetic and increased parasympathetic dominance. These results suggest that DRES horses tend to have less acute stress than do REC horses postexercise. The findings of this study suggest maintaining the health and well-being of DRES horses despite nonnatural, biomechanical positions.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Routledge Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1088-8705 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes doi: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0901_5 Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6183  
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