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Author (up) Baragli, P.; Demuru, E.; Scopa, C.; Palagi, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are horses capable of mirror self-recognition? A pilot study Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plos One Abbreviated Journal Plos One  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages e0176717  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Mirror Self-Recognition (MSR) unveils complex cognitive, social and emotional skills and it has been found only in humans and few other species, such as great apes, dolphins, elephants and magpies. In this pilot study, we tested if horses show the capacity of MSR. Four subjects living socially under naturalistic conditions were selected for the experiment. We adopted the classical mark test, which consists in placing a coloured mark on an out-of-view body part, visible only through mirror inspection. If the animal considers the image as its own, it will use its reflection to detect the mark and will try to explore it. We enhanced the classical paradigm by introducing a double-check control. Only in the presence of the reflecting surface, animals performed tactile and olfactory exploration of the mirror and looked behind it. These behaviors suggest that subjects were trying to associate multiple sensory cues (visual, tactile and olfactory) to the image in the mirror. The lack of correspondence between the collected stimuli in front of the mirror and the response to the colored mark lead us to affirm that horses are able to perceive that the reflected image is incongruent when compared with the memorized information of a real horse. However, without replication of data, the self-directed behavior towards the colored marks showed by our horses cannot be sufficient per se to affirm that horses are capable of self-recognition.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Public Library of Science Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6158  
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Author (up) Bílá, K.; Beránková, J.; Veselý, P.; Bugnyar, T.; Schwab, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Responses of urban crows to con- and hetero-specific alarm calls in predator and non-predator zoo enclosures Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 43-51  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Urban animals and birds in particular are able to cope with diverse novel threats in a city environment such as avoiding novel, unfamiliar predators. Predator avoidance often includes alarm signals that can be used also by hetero-specifics, which is mainly the case in mixed-species flocks. It can also occur when species do not form flocks but co-occur together. In this study we tested whether urban crows use alarm calls of conspecifics and hetero-specifics (jackdaws, Corvus monedula) differently in a predator and a non-predator context with partly novel and unfamiliar zoo animal species. Birds were tested at the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in the city of Vienna by playing back con- and hetero-specific alarm calls and control stimuli (great tit song and no stimuli) at predator (wolf, polar bear) and non-predator (eland antelope and cranes, peccaries) enclosures. We recorded responses of crows as the percentage of birds flying away after hearing the playback (out of those present before the playback) and as the number of vocalizations given by the present birds. A significantly higher percentage of crows flew away after hearing either con- or hetero-specific alarm calls, but it did not significantly differ between the predator and the non-predator context. Crows treated jackdaw calls just as crow calls, indicating that they make proper use of hetero-specific alarm calls. Responding similarly in both contexts may suggest that the crows were uncertain about the threat a particular zoo animal represents and were generally cautious. In the predator context, however, a high percentage of crows also flew away upon hearing the great tit control song which suggests that they may still evaluate those species which occasionally killed crows as more dangerous and respond to any conspicuous sound.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Bílá2017 Serial 6159  
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Author (up) Briard, L.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival Type Journal Article
  Year 0 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords consensus; herding; polygyny; personal leadership; shared decision  
  Abstract Abstract The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6151  
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Author (up) Briard, L.; Dorn, C.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Personality and Affinities Play a Key Role in the Organisation of Collective Movements in a Group of Domestic Horses Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal Ethology  
  Volume 121 Issue 9 Pages 888-902  
  Keywords decision-making; equids; hierarchy; leadership; social network  
  Abstract Understanding how groups of individuals with different motives come to daily decisions about the exploitation of their environment is a key question in animal behaviour. While interindividual differences are often seen only as a threat to group cohesion, growing evidence shows that they may to some extent facilitate effective collective action. Recent studies suggest that personality differences influence how individuals are attracted to conspecifics and affect their behaviour as an initiator or a follower. However, most of the existing studies are limited to a few taxa, mainly social fish and arthropods. Horses are social herbivores that live in long-lasting groups and show identifiable personality differences between individuals. We studied a group of 38 individuals living in a 30-ha hilly pasture. Over 200 h, we sought to identify how far individual differences such as personality and affinity distribution affect the dynamic of their collective movements. First, we report that individuals distribute their relationships according to similar personality and hierarchical rank. This is the first study that demonstrates a positive assortment between unrelated individuals according to personality in a mammal species. Second, we measured individual propensity to initiate and found that bold individuals initiated more often than shy individuals. However, their success in terms of number of followers and joining duration did not depend on their individual characteristics. Moreover, joining process is influenced by social network, with preferred partners following each other and bolder individuals being located more often at the front of the movement. Our results illustrate the importance of taking into account interindividual behavioural differences in studies of social behaviours.  
  Address  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1439-0310 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6153  
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Author (up) Brooks, C.J.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Directed movement and orientation across a large natural landscape by zebras, Equus burchelli antiquorum Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 277-285  
  Keywords correlated random walk; directed movement; Equus burchelli antiquorum; Gps; movement path; orientation; spatial memory; spatial scale; zebra  
  Abstract We investigated how plains zebras moved across a large natural landscape by analysing the movement paths of nine zebra mares foraging out from spatially confined waterholes during the dry season in the Makgadikgadi Pans National Park, Botswana. Since it was essential to investigate directed movement over a range of spatial scales to determine the correct movement behaviour and strategy, we used Nams's scaling test for oriented movement. Zebras followed directed movement paths in the lower to medium spatial scales (10 m–3.7 km) and above their visual, and possibly olfactory, range. The spatial scale of directed movement suggests that zebras had a well-defined spatial awareness and cognitive ability. Seven zebras used directed movement paths, but the remaining two followed paths not significantly different to a correlated random walk (CRW). At large spatial scales (>3 km) no distinct movement pattern could be identified and paths could not be distinguished from a CRW. Foraging strategy affected the extent of directed movement: zebras with a confined dispersion of grazing patches around the central place directed their movements over a longer distance. Zebras may extend the distance at which they can direct their movement after improving their knowledge of the local environment.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6148  
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W. openurl 
  Title Do larger brains mean greater intelligence? Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Behavioral and Brain Sciences Abbreviated Journal Behav. Brain Sci.  
  Volume 16 Issue 4 Pages 696-697  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Cambridge University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1469-1825 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6171  
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Author (up) Byrne, R.W.; Whiten, A. openurl 
  Title Tactical deception in primates: the 1990 database Type Book Whole
  Year 1990 Publication Primate Reports Abbreviated Journal Primate Rep.  
  Volume 27 Issue Pages 1-101  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher German Primate Center Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6172  
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Author (up) Carlstead, K.; Brown, J.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationships between patterns of Fecal corticoid excretion and behavior, reproduction, and environmental factors in captive black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal Zoo Biol.  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 215-232  
  Keywords stress; adrenal activity; olfactory behavior; ovarian activity; reproduction; mortality  
  Abstract Mortality is high in zoo-housed black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), and the reproductive rates of captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) are unsustainably low. To determine the possible role of stress in the causation of these problems, we analyzed weekly fecal samples collected for 1 year from black (10 males and 16 females) and white (six males and 13 females) rhinoceroses at 16 zoos for corticoid metabolite concentrations. Fecal corticoid profiles were examined in relation to behavior as rated by keepers in a questionnaire, luteal phase ovarian cycles of females (Brown et al., 2001), and socioenvironmental factors. We compared individual fecal corticoid profiles by examining hormone means and variability (i.e., standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV)). For the black rhinos, higher mean corticoid concentrations were found at zoos where rhinos were maintained in enclosures that were exposed to the public around a greater portion of the perimeter. Higher variability in corticoid excretion was correlated with higher rates of fighting between breeding partners and higher institutional mortality rates. Black rhino pairs that were kept separated exhibited lower corticoid variability and less fighting activity when they were introduced during female estrous periods compared to pairs that were kept together every day. For white rhinos, significantly lower mean corticoids were found for individuals that rated higher on “friendliness to keeper.” Higher corticoid variability was found in noncycling as compared to cycling white rhino females. Noncycling females exhibited higher rates of stereotypic pacing and lower frequencies of olfactory behaviors. Interindividual differences in mean corticoids in both species appeared to be related to responsiveness to humans, whereas corticoid variability was related to intraspecific social relationships. More importantly, high corticoid variability appeared to be an indicator of chronic or “bad” stress, because of its association with potentially deleterious consequences in each species (i.e., fighting and mortality (black rhino), and reproductive acyclicity (white rhino)). Our results provide evidence that social stressors may cause chronic stress in black and white rhinos, and that this contributes to the captive-population sustainability problems observed in each species. Zoo Biol 0:1–18, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1098-2361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6142  
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Author (up) Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 375-386  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller’s sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2016 Serial 6144  
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Author (up) Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 385-392  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2015 Serial 6143  
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