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Author (up) Briard, L.; Deneubourg, J.-L.; Petit, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How stallions influence the dynamic of collective movements in two groups of domestic horses, from departure to arrival Type Journal Article
  Year 0 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords consensus; herding; polygyny; personal leadership; shared decision  
  Abstract Abstract The role of leader in polygynous species has been solely attributed to the male for some time, but recent studies shown decision making to be distributed within the group. However, the specific reproductive strategy and behavioural repertoire of males in polygynous species such as horses may mean that these individuals still have the potential to play a specific role during decision-making. To investigate this subject, we thoroughly studied the behaviour of two domestic stallions during collective movements of their group. We found that they initiated rarely and sometimes failed to recruit the entire group. When departing as followers, they did not accelerate the joining process. Both stallions preferentially occupied the rear position and exhibited numerous monitoring behaviours. Herding behaviours were performed by only one stallion and mostly occurred outside movement context. Finally, we removed this herding stallion from its group to evaluate how the group dynamic changed. As a result, half of the collective movements were five times slower and mares were more dispersed in comparison when the stallion was in the group. Overall, our results suggest that, the two stallions maintained their role of group monitors from departure to arrival. Their influence on the movement dynamic was indirect and did not play a specific role in the process of decision making.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6151  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Brooks, C.J.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Directed movement and orientation across a large natural landscape by zebras, Equus burchelli antiquorum Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Anim. Behav.  
  Volume 76 Issue 2 Pages 277-285  
  Keywords correlated random walk; directed movement; Equus burchelli antiquorum; Gps; movement path; orientation; spatial memory; spatial scale; zebra  
  Abstract We investigated how plains zebras moved across a large natural landscape by analysing the movement paths of nine zebra mares foraging out from spatially confined waterholes during the dry season in the Makgadikgadi Pans National Park, Botswana. Since it was essential to investigate directed movement over a range of spatial scales to determine the correct movement behaviour and strategy, we used Nams's scaling test for oriented movement. Zebras followed directed movement paths in the lower to medium spatial scales (10 m–3.7 km) and above their visual, and possibly olfactory, range. The spatial scale of directed movement suggests that zebras had a well-defined spatial awareness and cognitive ability. Seven zebras used directed movement paths, but the remaining two followed paths not significantly different to a correlated random walk (CRW). At large spatial scales (>3 km) no distinct movement pattern could be identified and paths could not be distinguished from a CRW. Foraging strategy affected the extent of directed movement: zebras with a confined dispersion of grazing patches around the central place directed their movements over a longer distance. Zebras may extend the distance at which they can direct their movement after improving their knowledge of the local environment.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-3472 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6148  
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Author (up) Carlstead, K.; Brown, J.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationships between patterns of Fecal corticoid excretion and behavior, reproduction, and environmental factors in captive black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Zoo Biology Abbreviated Journal Zoo Biol.  
  Volume 24 Issue 3 Pages 215-232  
  Keywords stress; adrenal activity; olfactory behavior; ovarian activity; reproduction; mortality  
  Abstract Mortality is high in zoo-housed black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), and the reproductive rates of captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) are unsustainably low. To determine the possible role of stress in the causation of these problems, we analyzed weekly fecal samples collected for 1 year from black (10 males and 16 females) and white (six males and 13 females) rhinoceroses at 16 zoos for corticoid metabolite concentrations. Fecal corticoid profiles were examined in relation to behavior as rated by keepers in a questionnaire, luteal phase ovarian cycles of females (Brown et al., 2001), and socioenvironmental factors. We compared individual fecal corticoid profiles by examining hormone means and variability (i.e., standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV)). For the black rhinos, higher mean corticoid concentrations were found at zoos where rhinos were maintained in enclosures that were exposed to the public around a greater portion of the perimeter. Higher variability in corticoid excretion was correlated with higher rates of fighting between breeding partners and higher institutional mortality rates. Black rhino pairs that were kept separated exhibited lower corticoid variability and less fighting activity when they were introduced during female estrous periods compared to pairs that were kept together every day. For white rhinos, significantly lower mean corticoids were found for individuals that rated higher on “friendliness to keeper.” Higher corticoid variability was found in noncycling as compared to cycling white rhino females. Noncycling females exhibited higher rates of stereotypic pacing and lower frequencies of olfactory behaviors. Interindividual differences in mean corticoids in both species appeared to be related to responsiveness to humans, whereas corticoid variability was related to intraspecific social relationships. More importantly, high corticoid variability appeared to be an indicator of chronic or “bad” stress, because of its association with potentially deleterious consequences in each species (i.e., fighting and mortality (black rhino), and reproductive acyclicity (white rhino)). Our results provide evidence that social stressors may cause chronic stress in black and white rhinos, and that this contributes to the captive-population sustainability problems observed in each species. Zoo Biol 0:1–18, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1098-2361 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6142  
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Author (up) Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sex and species recognition by wild male southern white rhinoceros using contact pant calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 19 Issue 2 Pages 375-386  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller’s sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2016 Serial 6144  
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Author (up) Cinková, I.; Policht, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination of familiarity and sex from chemical cues in the dung by wild southern white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 385-392  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Communication in rhinos is primarily mediated by the vocal and olfactory signals as they have relatively poor eyesight. White rhinos are the most social of all the rhinoceros species, they defecate at common dungheaps and the adult bulls use dung and urine to mark their territory. Chemical communication may therefore be particularly important in the social interactions of white rhinos, and its knowledge could be very helpful in their management and conservation. However, no studies have investigated up until now the olfactory discrimination in any rhinoceros species in the wild. We have experimentally studied the reactions of the wild southern white rhinos (Ceratotherium simum) to the dung of familiar and unfamiliar adult females and adult territorial males. We registered the number of sniffing events, the duration of sniffing and the latency of the vigilance posture from the onset of sniffing. The dung of unfamiliar rhinos was sniffed longer than that of familiar rhinos. The rhinos showed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to the familiar dung of males than that of females. For unfamiliar dung, they displayed a shorter latency of vigilance posture to female than male dung. Our results indicate that the rhinos are able to discriminate the familiarity and sex of conspecifics from the smell of their dung. Olfactory cues could therefore play an important role in the social relationships and spatial organization of the southern white rhinoceros.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Cinková2015 Serial 6143  
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Author (up) Daniel, J.C.; Mikulka, P.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Discrimination learning in the white rhinoceros Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Applied Animal Behaviour Science Abbreviated Journal Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 58 Issue 1–2 Pages 197-202  
  Keywords Rhinoceros; Learning  
  Abstract This study examined the ability of two adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum) to develop a visual discrimination between an open circle and a triangle. These stimuli were presented as black symbols on large white cards. The cards were presented 4.6 m apart and a food reward was given if the subject approached the open circle. Ten discrimination choices were given daily until each subject reached the criterion of 80% correct responding over a block of 50 trials. The female reached the criterion over trials 151–200, while the male required considerably longer (trials 501–550). The male's discrimination was dramatically affected by a shift in the food reward. This study demonstrates that these rhinos were able to develop a successful discrimination and this protocol could be used to further examine their visual acuity.  
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6145  
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Author (up) Ducatez, S.; Audet, J.-N.; Rodriguez, J.R.; Kayello, L.; Lefebvre, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Innovativeness and the effects of urbanization on risk-taking behaviors in wild Barbados birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 33-42  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The effects of urbanization on avian cognition remain poorly understood. Risk-taking behaviors like boldness, neophobia and flight distance are thought to affect opportunism and innovativeness, and should also vary with urbanization. Here, we investigate variation in risk-taking behaviors in the field in an avian assemblage of nine species that forage together in Barbados and for which innovation rate is known from previous work. We predicted that birds from highly urbanized areas would show more risk-taking behavior than conspecifics from less urbanized parts of the island and that the differences would be strongest in the most innovative of the species. Overall, we found that urban birds are bolder, less neophobic and have shorter flight distances than their less urbanized conspecifics. Additionally, we detected between-species differences in the effect of urbanization on flight distance, more innovative species showing smaller differences in flight distance between areas. Our results suggest that, within successful urban colonizers, species differences in innovativeness may affect the way species change their risk-taking behaviors in response to the urban environment.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Ducatez2017 Serial 6128  
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Author (up) GONÇALVES DA SILVA, A.; CAMPOS-ARCEIZ, A.; ZAVADA, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On tapir ecology, evolution and conservation: what we know and future perspectives–part II Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Integrative Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 1-3  
  Keywords  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Blackwell Publishing Ltd Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1749-4877 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6141  
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Author (up) Gorgasser I.; Tichy A.; Palme R. openurl 
  Title Faecal cortisol metabolites in Quarter Horses during initial training under field conditions[Messung der Kortisolmetaboliten im Pferdekot während der Grundausbildung von 2jährigen Quarter Horses] Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria Abbreviated Journal Wien. Tierärztl. Mschr. – Vet. Med. Austria  
  Volume 94 Issue Pages 226 - 230  
  Keywords horse, stress, adrenocortical activity, western riding, non-invasive[Pferd, Stress, Nebennierenrindenaktivität, Westernreiten, nicht-invasiv]  
  Abstract The first month of training of a young horse is suspected to be stressful, but the endocrine responses to initial training are unknown. Therefore in our study a total of 40 Quarter Horses (QH), all at the age of almost 2 years, were followed during the first 30 days of their training. During this time faecal samples were collected twice daily and faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) were measured. Baseline values of FCM ranged between 1.3 and 20.1 (median: 6.7) ng/g faeces. No differences in FCM values between days of training were found. Mares showed the highest values. Significant diurnal variations were observed in mares (p=0.035) and stallions (p=0.003), but not in geldings (p=0.282). As in this study adrenocortical activity was not increased during initial training, horses seem to cope very well with this new situation. The results of our large-scale study provide basic physiological data about initial training. This gives additional input in an emotional debate about animal welfare aspects of first time handling and training of horses.

Abbreviations: 11,17-DOA = 11,17-dioxoandrostanes; EIA = Enyzme Immunoassay; FCM = faecal cortisol metabolites; GC = glucocorticoids; HPA-axis = hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis; QH = Quarter Horses

[Das Einreiten eines jungen Pferdes steht unter Verdacht belastend zu sein. Bisher gibt es aber keine Veröffentlichungen über endokrine Vorgänge während dieser Phase. Mit der vorliegenden Studie wurde überprüft, ob Pferde aufgrund physischer und psychischer Belastungen während des Trainings höhere Konzentrationen an Kortisolmetaboliten im Kot (FCM) aufweisen. Es wurden dazu 40 Quarter Horses im Alter von 2 Jahren während der ersten 30 Tage der Grundausbildung des Westernreitens beobachtet und ihre FCM Werte gemessen. Während dieser Zeitspanne wurden täglich morgens und abends Kotproben der Pferde genommen. Die Basalwerte der FCM Konzentration variierten zwischen 1,3 und 20,1 (Median: 6,7) ng/g Kot, wobei Stuten die höchsten Werte hatten. Signifikante Unterschiede während der einzelnen Trainingstage konnten nicht festgestellt werden. In der Tagesrhythmik wurden signifikante Unterschiede bei Stuten (p=0,035) und bei Hengsten (p=0,003), jedoch nicht bei Wallachen (p=0,282) ermittelt. In dieser Studie konnte keine erhöhte Aktivität der Nebennierenrinde im Verlauf der Grundausbildung eines Pferdes im Westernreitstil festgestellt werden. Das legt nahe, dass Pferde mit dieser neuen, zeitlich kurz andauernden Situationen gut zurechtkommen. Unsere Studie wurde an einer großen Anzahl von Tieren unter Feldbedingungen durchgeführt. Sie bietet daher eine gute Datenbasis über Belastungen während des Einreitens. Damit liefert sie einen zusätzlichen Beitrag zu einer mitunter emotional geführten Debatte über tierschutzrelevante Aspekte bei der Grundausbildung von Pferden.]
 
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Serial 6125  
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Author (up) Griffin, A.S.; Tebbich, S.; Bugnyar, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal cognition in a human-dominated world Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Animal Cognition Abbreviated Journal Anim. Cogn.  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pages 1-6  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1435-9456 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number Equine Behaviour @ team @ Griffin2017 Serial 6129  
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